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In general , the number of electrons in the outermost shell of a metal atom is :
A.1
B.1-3
C.1-8
D.8

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Last updated date: 20th Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint: All the elements in the periodic table exist in their most stable states .The elements in the periodic table either donate or accept electrons to gain stability.

Complete step by step answer:
Some elements become stable by completing duplet ,that is, they gain stability when they have two electrons in the outermost shell because they have only 1s orbital which can accommodate a maximum of only two electrons .Hydrogen and Helium are the two elements that gain stability by completing their duplet.
All the other elements gain stability by completing their octet, that is, they have eight electrons in the outermost shell because the valence shells of most atoms can accommodate a maximum of eight electrons.
Elements, on the basis of giving and accepting electrons, are divided into two categories-metals and non-metals.
Elements which donate electrons are known as metals while those which accept electrons are non-metals.
Metals donate electrons to complete their octet and attain noble gas configuration.
They usually have one, two or three electrons in their valence shell so it is easier for them to donate electrons rather than accepting more electrons.
Non-metals, on the other hand, accept electrons to complete their octet because they have five, six or seven electrons in valence shell so it is easier for them to accept less number of electrons than losing them.
Metals form cations on donating electrons, that is they develop positive charge according to the number of electrons donated.
For example, sodium donates one electron so it develops +1 charge on it.
The number of electrons donated decides the valency of the metal atom.

So, the correct answer is Option B .

Note:
The metals appear on the left hand side of the periodic table and they comprise 78 percent of the total elements present in the periodic table . They are good conductors of heat and electricity .