Hint: Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule made up of two polynucleotide chains that coil around each other to form a double helix and carry genetic instructions for all known organisms and viruses' development, function, growth, and reproduction. Nucleic acids include DNA and ribonucleic acid.
During his research on white blood cells in 1869, Swiss biologist Johannes Friedrich Miescher recognized and identified DNA for the first time. James Watson and Francis Crick used experimental data to discover the double helix structure of a DNA molecule. Finally, DNA was shown to be responsible for the storage of genetic information in living organisms
This is also true for viruses, as most of these organisms' genetic material is either RNA or DNA. Some viruses, for example, may have RNA as their genetic material, whereas others may have DNA as their genetic material. After attaching itself to the host cell, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) contains RNA, which is then converted into DNA.
Apart from being responsible for the transmission of genetic information in all living things, DNA is also essential for protein synthesis. Nuclear DNA is the DNA found in every cell of a eukaryotic organism's nucleus. It is responsible for the majority of the organism's genomes, while mitochondrial DNA and plastid DNA are in charge of the rest.
The ability to detect DNA is required for recombinant DNA methodologies. The absorbance of ultraviolet light is one way to determine the amount of RNA or DNA in a solution. As the ring structures in the bases absorb ultraviolet light, the DNA absorbs it. Ultraviolet light tends to absorb single-stranded RNA and free nucleotides. Because their structures are looser, they absorb more light. The amount of absorption is equated with a set of known criteria, allowing the concentration of DNA to be determined.
Note: The DNA fingerprinting method, also known as a "DNA test," is used for criminal identification, maternal or paternal identification, unknown individual identification, learning about a person's history, and distinguishing two individuals or species. It is accepted for plant research studies, species/speciation, and evolutionary studies in addition to human DNA testing.