Questions & Answers

Forelimbs of frogs and lizards are the example of ________ organs.
(a)Homologous
(b)Analogous
(c)Both A and B
(d)None of these

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Hint: The forelimbs of lizard and frog share the same anatomical structure but different functions. This similarity arises because they all share a common ancestor but differ in function due to evolution and to survive in their habitat. This is commonly known as divergent evolution.

Complete answer:
Forelimbs of frogs and lizards are the example of homologous organs.
Homologous structures are the anatomically similar structures that have a common ancestor. Even if they are superficially different, they are developmentally related. Homologous structures do not share the same function. The hoping legs of the frog contain the same bones as a lizard’s forelimb, the humerus, the radius, and the ulna but the frog’s legs are highly modified to perform a different function (hoping) and lizard’s leg for locomotion. For example, Limbs of Human, Bat, and Mouse are strikingly similar but, humans write from hand-limbs, mice run, and bat flies.

Additional Information: Analogous organs are those organs that perform the same functions but have different ancestors and structures. For example, the wings of bats and birds have a different structure but perform the same function of flying. It is convergent evolution as despite having different ancestors they are performing the same functions.
There is wide evidence that supports evolution. Two of them are homologous and analogous structures. The difference between them is as follows:
Homologous StructureAnalogous Structure
Similar anatomyDissimilar anatomy
Dissimilar functionsSimilar Functions
Inherited from a common ancestorNot inherited from ancestors
Develops in related speciesDevelops in unrelated species
A result of divergent evolutionA result of convergent evolution
These developed as a result of the adaptation to a different environmentThese developed as a result of the adaptation to a similar environment


So, the correct answer is ‘Homologous’.

Note: The observations of structural homology support the causal hypothesis of evolutionary homology: that the common structural organization results from common ancestry. The evidence of analogous structures further supports the evolutionary homology concept.