Eye of Octopus and Eye of cat show different patterns of structure.Yet they perform similar function.This is an example of A. Analogous organ that have evolved due to divergent evolution B. Homologous organ that have evolved due to convergent evolution C. Homologous organ that have evolved due to divergent evolution D. Analogous organ that have evolved due to convergent evolution
Hint: Related traits can be either homologous or analogous. Homologous structures have a similar embryonic origin; analogous organs have a similar function.
Complete Answer: - In evolutionary biology, analogous structures are described as biological structures with similar or corresponding functions but not of the same evolutionary origin. - In other words, organisms use these biological mechanisms for the same reason and yet these organisms come from unrelated evolutionary lines. - This process of evolution is referred to as convergent evolution. Convergent evolution is a form of evolution in which organisms create structures that have identical (analogous) structures or functions despite the fact that their evolutionary heritage is quite different or unrelated. - Thus, analogous structures of unrelated organisms will have a similar or corresponding feature, even though they evolved from different evolutionary origins. - Homologous organs are classified as organs of different animals which have a similar structure but differ in function. The anatomy of the two separate species is identical, but the functions of their organs vary. They are divergent in nature as they have common ancestors.
Thus the correct answer is (D) Analogous organs that have evolved due to convergent evolution.
Note: In order to decide if the structure is similar to that of another species, one might look at their common lineage, i.e the series of that particular species.