Explain the Wurtz-fittig reaction.

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Hint: We can prepare a longer alkane chain by reacting two different alkyl halides with sodium and dry ether solution which is known as Wurtz-fittig reaction.

Complete step by step answer:
We must know that the Wurtz reaction is an organic chemical coupling reaction where sodium metal is reacted with two alkyl halides in the presence of dry ether solution in order to form a higher alkane. This reaction also forms sodium and the halogen as byproducts.
Following written equation is the general form of the Wurtz reaction:
\[2R - X{\text{ }} + {\text{ }}2Na{\text{ }} \to {\text{ }}R - R{\text{ }} + {\text{ }}2Na + \;{X^-}\]
From this equation, we can observe that the two alkyl halide groups are joined to yield an alkane with a longer chain along with \[NaX\], where \[X\] is a Halogen group.
The mechanism of the Wurtz reaction involves a free radical species donated by an alkyl group which is a part of a process of halogen-metal exchange. The carbon-carbon bond is formed in this reaction through a nucleophilic substitution mechanism.
Other than the sodium, one can use metals like silver, indium, activated copper, zinc, and iron in the Wurtz-Fittig reaction in order to obtain long chain alkanes.
Additional information:
Limitations of the Wurtz Reaction
We can only synthesis symmetric alkanes through Wurtz-Fittig reaction method
An alkene product can be formed through a side reaction
Methane cannot be synthesized through the Wurtz-fittig reaction
The Wurtz-Fitting reaction does not succeed when we use tertiary alkyl halides.

We must know that the Wurtz reaction is named after Charles-Adolphe Wurtz. It is a coupling reaction in organic chemistry or organometallic chemistry. The Wurtz reaction is applicable in the fields of organic chemistry and organometallic chemistry for the formation of alkanes. This mechanism is similar to the formation mechanism of Grignard reagents to some extent.