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Explain how the elements are classified into s, p, d and f-block elements in the periodic table and give the advantage of this type of classification.

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Hint: At first think about the elements that are placed in different blocks of periodic table and study about them so that you can get some idea about the classification of s, p, d and f-block elements in periodic table.

Complete step by step answer:
The elements in the long form of periodic table are classified into four blocks. They are s, p, d and f-block elements. The classification is based on the name of orbitals which receive the last electron.
The elements in which the valence shell electron enters the s-orbital are called s-block elements. For example let us take sodium. The electronic configuration of sodium is $1{s^2}2{s^2}2{p^6}3{s^1}$. From the electronic configuration we can conclude that the last electron enters the s-subshell. The elements in which the valence shell electron enters the p-orbital are called p-block elements. For example the electronic configuration of carbon is $1{s^2}2{s^2}2{p^2}$, in this the last electron enters the p-subshell.Similarly the elements in which the valence shell electron enters the d and f-orbitals then they are called as d and f-block elements respectively.
Due to this kind of classification the same orbital elements have similar properties. So all elements which have similar properties and behavior are placed together so that we can learn easily.

Additional Information:-The s-block and p-block elements are called representative elements. The d-block elements are called transition elements and f-block elements are called Inner-transition elements. In p-block elements helium is an exception. Helium has two electrons in s-orbital but it is placed in p-block due to the similar properties of noble gas elements.

Note:
Don’t get confused with the helium element which is placed in p-block elements in periodic tables. Helium is considered a noble gas element as it has a duplet configuration. Every block element has different properties.