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How does bile help in absorption of fat?

Last updated date: 19th Jun 2024
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Hint: Bile is a complex liquid containing water, electrolytes, and a battery of organic molecules, including bile acids, cholesterol, phospholipids, and bilirubin, that travel through the bile ducts into the small intestine.

Complete answer:
Since fat is insoluble in water and does not mix with chyme so fat is neither absorbed in their original form or not digested by enzymes. This process emulsification is possible in the small intestine in the presence of bile salts and other substances.
Digestion-Bile contains bile salts that act as lipid emulsifiers. The term "emulsification" means breaking down large fat droplets into smaller ones. Bile salts are destroyed by coating the fat, forming microscopic droplets. These microscopic droplets have a large surface area and aid in digestion, since the fat-assimilated pancreatic lipase enzyme can only act on the surface of the fat droplet.
Enzymes in the small intestine are responsible for nearly all fat digestion. When the pancreatic lipase acts on lipids, it breaks down to form two lipid digestion products: free fatty acids and monoglycerides. This product is much easier to work with in the small intestine and has fewer digestive problems than the digestive tract.
Absorption-Fatty acids and glycerol do not dissolve in water, so they cannot enter the bloodstream directly. They are composed of small, round, water-soluble droplets called micelles in the intestinal lumen with the help of bile salts and phospholipids. Micelles are a collection of molecules.
Fat-soluble fatty acids, glycerides, sterols and vitamins are absorbed by micelles through diffusion into intestinal cells, re-synthesized in endoplasmic reticulum. and converted into very small fat molecules (droplets) called chylomicrons, which are released from the cells. Lymph, lymphatic capillaries, intestinal cells from lactic acid. Small amounts of short-chain fatty acids are absorbed directly into the bloodstream by diffusion rather than through the lymph. Fatty acids, vitamins and glycerol are absorbed by the plant.

Bile salts reduce the surface tension of water by emulsifying intestinal fat and dissolving water-insoluble fatty acids and soap. The presence of bile in the intestines promotes the digestion and absorption of fats, as well as the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K.
Bile activates pancreatic lipase and cholesterol esterase C. In combination with free fatty acids and monoglycerides, it helps to form small particles, called micelles, and absorb them in the intestines.
They absorb fatty acids, cholesterol, carotene and fat-soluble vitamins D and K and form more water-soluble complexes (hydrotropic effect).