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Last updated date: 25th Nov 2023
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MVSAT Dec 2023

Distinguish between conductors and insulators of electricity. Give two examples of each.

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Hint: The conductor is described as the material which enables the electric current or heat to transfer through it. The electrons inside a conductor are freely passed from atom to atom when the potential difference is implemented across them. The materials which do not provide the electric current or heat to move through it such kind of material is called an insulator. The covalent bond between the insulator atoms is powerful. Thus, the charges do not flow freely. The resistivity of the insulator is very large.

Complete step-by-step solution:
An electrical conductor is described as materials that provide electricity to flow through them quickly. This characteristic of conductors that enable them to convey electricity is named conductivity.
The electrons flow in a conductor are the electric current. The force needed to make that current run through the conductor is identified as voltage.
When a charge is transported to such an element, it becomes distributed across the whole surface of the object, which appears in the flow of electrons in the material. The charges carried to an electrical conductor diffuse until the repulsion force between electrons in ranges of excess electrons is lowered to the minimum value. When an object is made in touch with another conductor, the charge gets transported from the primary conductor to the other until the overall repulsion force due to the charge is decreased.
In a conductor, Materials that allow electricity or heat to flow through it. Electrons flow freely inside the conductor. The electric field is on the surface but resides zero on the inside. In insulators, Materials that do not allow heat and electricity to move through it. Electrons do not flow freely inside the insulator. The electric field does not exist.
Insulators are substances that prevent the free electrons flow from one particle of the component to another. If we transport some amount of charge to an element at any position, the charge resides at the initial location and does not become distributed over the surface. The typical charging of such elements includes charging by rubbing and charging by induction.
Some of the conductor examples are- Copper, Gold, and Iron. Some of the insulator examples are- Plastic, Wood, and Glass.

Note:The conductance band and valence band of a conductor overlap each other; hence there is no forbidden gap of energy. The resistance of the conductor is negligible, due to which the charges freely transfer from place to place when the voltage is implemented across them. The forbidden gap of energy between the conduction band and valence band of an insulator is enormous, and hence the electrons need significant energy for moving from valence band to conduction band.