Hint: Insulin is mainly given by injections with a very fine and sharp needle.
The injections are virtually painless.
Patients must learn the technique of injection and taking out the desired dose of insulin from the vial.
Most patients starting Insulin injection prefer pen devices when given a choice.
Insulin is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of pancreatic islets.
It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins by promoting the absorption of glucose from the blood into liver, fat, skeletal muscle cells.
High concentration of insulin in the blood inhibits the glucose production and secretion.
It is a hormone which promotes the conversion of small molecules into large molecules inside the cells.
Beta cells are sensitive to blood sugar levels so that they can secrete insulin into the blood in response to high levels of glucose; and inhibit secretion of insulin when glucose levels are low.
Insulin enhances glucose uptake and metabolism and reduces blood sugar level.
Glucagon increases blood glucose level by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in the liver.
Decreased or loss of insulin activity results in diabetes mellitus.
It is a condition of high blood sugar level (hyperglycemia).
Insulin was discovered by Sir Frederick G Banting, Charles H Best and JJR Macleod.
It was discovered by the diabetic patient.
Note: Diabetes mellitus is defined as heterogeneous metabolic disorder characterized by common features of chronic hypoglycemia with disturbance of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism.
1. Dietary management and lifestyle modifications
2. Oral hypoglycemic agents.