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Differentiate between transcription and translation.

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Last updated date: 20th Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint: Transcription is the process of copying a gene's DNA sequence to make an RNA molecule and translation is the process in which proteins are synthesized after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.

Complete answer: The central dogma in molecular biology shows that DNA makes mRNA and mRNA make proteins.
DNA transcription → mRNA translation→Proteins
The process by which DNA forms mRNA is called transcription while the process by which mRNA forms protein is called translation.
Transcription occurs in the nucleus and translation in the cytoplasm. In the transcription process, the DNA first forms the heterogenous immature RNA (hnRNA), which comes out of the nucleus and matures into mRNA.
DNA transcripts genes which are responsible for synthesizing specific proteins.
Proteins are synthesized during the translation process which is actually carried out by means of tRNA and rRNA, thus the mRNA is not directly involved in the translation process.

TranscriptionTranslation
It is the first step in Gene expression.It is the second step in Gene expression.
Transcription synthesizes RNA copies from DNATranslation synthesizes proteins from RNA copies.
Transcription takes place in the nucleus of the cell Translation takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell
Transcription uses RNA polymerase enzyme to make copies of RNA from DNAThe translation uses Ribosomes to synthesize proteins from RNA transcripts.
It produces functional RNA (several copies)It produces proteins
Here the only mRNA is involvedHere mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA are involved.
Transcription can be inhibited by antibiotic rifampicinTranslation can be inhibited by the antibiotic tetracycline


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Note: Both are biological processes and are concerned with DNA and RNA, both of them involve the processes of initiation, elongation, and termination.