Hint:Peppered moth is a temperate species of night-flying moth. Peppered moth evolution is an example of population genetics and natural selection.
Complete answer: The evolution of the peppered moth is an evolutionary instance of directional colour change in the moth population as a consequence of air pollution during the Industrial Revolution. The frequency of dark-coloured moths increased at that time and hence an example of Industrial Melanism.
After the pollution from the Industrial Revolution started affecting trees, mostly the peppered moth which were collected of dark form. They were getting eaten by the birds in a very large number, while the rare dark coloured/ light coloured moths blended in better on the darker trees. This made the survival rate of the dark coloured moth higher.
In the 1900s, the peppered moth populations in areas around English cities were as much as 98% dark moths. Scientists were very curious about the reason behind the happening of this. Most of the moths collected in the early 1800s were of light forms. The black colour of the dark form was due to the mutation in the DNA of the light-coloured form. Once this mutation was present, the dark-coloured moths would produce offspring with the dark-coloured wings.
Hence, the correct answer is an option (C). Natural selection in a smoky environment.
Note: Industrial Melanism is an evolutionary effect prominent in several arthropods, where dark pigmentation or often called melanism has evolved in an environment affected by industrial pollution, including the sulphur dioxide gas and dark soot deposits.