Hint: Climate is an average taken of weather typically long term period of about 30 years. It denotes the average and the variability of various meteorological parameters over the varying time span from months to millions of years. The climate of a location is often affected by the latitude it is situated in, altitude, its terrain, and also the presence of nearby water bodies.
Complete step-by-step solution:
The climate near the sea is known as the maritime climate. In such a climate the winters are not very harsh and cold and the summer is also not extremely hot.
The measure of the degree to which the climate of a region is under the influence of a Maritime airflow from oceans is known as the oceanic. The maritime climate is mostly humid and also has a huge amount of precipitation. The areas having a Maritime climate generally experience moderate weather conditions.
As one moves farther away from the sea, they start experiencing more extreme weather conditions. The winter's start getting colder and colder while the summers become increasingly hot.
This condition is known as Continentality.
Extreme hot conditions are experienced in deserts. The daytime temperature shoots up to a very high limit and then rapidly falls below zero after the sunset.
The countries near the poles, beyond The Arctic and the Antarctic circle experience cool weather. They remain frozen or snow-covered for most of the year.
Thus, option (B) is correct.
Note: The highest recorded temperature on the Earth was in Death Valley around 57 degrees Celsius. The lowest possible temperatures on Earth are recorded in Antarctica.