Consider the following statements: I. Karaikal Ammaiyar, a devotee of Shiva , adopted the path of extreme asceticism in order to attain her goal. II. Andal and Karaikal Ammaiyar renounced their social obligations , but did not join an alternative order to become nuns. Which of the following statements is/are correct about the women devotees of the period ? A. Only I B. Only II C. Both I and II D. Neither A nor B
Hint:We know that there were several religions in the world . Caste system was mostly followed in the Hindus.Caste is an hierarchical issue which classified people based on their work. Religion classified humans based on their divinity in their worship and ethical issues , morals. Several leaders like Alvars and Nayanars started several movements to remove the dominance of the higher caste people. Andal was an Alvar and Karaikal Ammaiyar was a Nayanar.
Complete answer: Let us discuss Alvars and Nayanars. Alvars were Tamil poets who worshiped and devoted to Lord Vishnu and his avatars. They lived as saints. They were linked to Vaishnavism. Nayanars were also Tamil poetic saints who worshiped and devoted to Lord Shiva. They were linked to Shaivism. There were several leaders in the religion. Hindus started a Bhakti movement in the eighteenth century. It was led by Alvars and Nayanars. There were sixty three Nayanars and twelve Alvars . They belonged to different caste societies. They preached about the god and goddess in the local language through stories and poems.they were against the caste system and also against the dominance of Brahmans . The importance of the traditions of the Alvars and Nayanars was sometimes indicated by the claim that their compositions were as important as the Vedas.
We will discuss Andal , she was the only woman Alvar .Andal saw herself as the beloved of Krishna who was an avatar of Vishnu. She expressed her love for the deity. Let us discuss Karaikal Ammaiyar. She was one among the three female Nayanars in the sixty three. She was a devotee of Shiva , adopted by the path of extreme asceticism in order to attain her goal. His works had been preserved in Nayanar tradition. Presence of ladies in Bhakti movement had a prominent function. Both Andal and Karaikkal Ammaiyar renounced their social obligations , but did not join an alternative order to become nuns. They were against the patriarchal community.
Hence, the correct answer is option (C).
Note:Bhakti Movement led by Alavars and Nayanars resulted in the formation of new religion Sikhism.Several leaders struggled to remove the caste and religious system from the earlier period. Their efforts made India to emerge as a nation with Unity in Diversity. India consists of a large number of religions and castes present in a common society but they are united.