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An isolated forest area is dominated by seed-eating birds, fruit-eating mammals, and insectivore amphibians.
The island experiences a long period of drought, causing the extinction of all large animals except for the seed-eating birds. The plant population of the forest recovers with the return of the water sources.

Which of the following is the most unlikely outcome?
A. Bird populations that specialize in eating fruit and insects will evolve
B. The bird populations will soon go extinct as well, as they are dependent on ecological roles of mammals and amphibians
C. The mammals and amphibians will reappear
D. The plant species will go extinct without the mammals and amphibians

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Last updated date: 26th Feb 2024
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Hint: Evolution is meant to be the basics of our life. We all develop with time and learn new things. The new generations being the smarter one evolve from parents due to the privileges provided to them. The species which can adjust to the conditions prevailing can also survive.

Complete Answer:
- The book ‘origin of species’ by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life was written by Charles Darwin in November’1859. It is scientific literature considered as the foundation of evolutionary biology.
- He introduced the concept that the populations evolve with time through a natural selection process. These were the two key points in his theory. He stated that variations occur in the new generations due to environmental conditions. According to his theory- the survival of the fittest is the key.
- Mammals are the egg-laying organisms which feed their young ones when delivered. Amphibians live both in water and on land.

Let us find the correct answer:
Option A: Bird populations that specialize in eating fruit and insects will evolve: Due to drought conditions, large organisms will become extinct thus giving a path to small insects and birds to evolve.

Option B: The bird populations will soon go extinct as well, as they are dependent on ecological roles of mammals and amphibians: Seeds can undergo the extreme conditions, even the drought conditions, so the birds eating them can survive this period.

Option C: The mammals and amphibians will reappear: The organisms once extinct cannot reappear. The recovery of water will not cause them to re-exist.

Option D: The plant species will go extinct without the mammals and amphibians: Plant does not depend only on mammals and amphibians to exist so their extinction will not affect the plants very much.

So the answer is option C: The mammals and amphibians will reappear.

Note: Survival of the fittest by Darwin was the evolutionary aspect. It says that an organism can only survive the existing conditions either by adapting them or causing any mutation in them. The other will become extinct. Natural selection is another name for this. Darwin is the father of evolutionary studies.