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Amoebic dysentery is caused by
(A) Entamoeba coli
(B) Entamoeba histolytica
(C) Entamoeba gingivalis
(D) Amoeba proteus

Last updated date: 17th Jun 2024
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Hint: Amoebas are unicellular, eukaryotic organisms. Amoebic dysentery, otherwise known as amoebiasis or entamoebiasis is a human gastrointestinal tract infection. It is caused by all the species of Amoeba belonging to the Entamoeba group. But the symptoms appear and become severe only when certain species of Entamoeba affects the individual.

Complete Answer:
Amoebic dysentery, also known as amoebiasis or entamoebiasis is caused by organisms belonging to the Entamoeba group. Amoebiasis, in many cases used to refer to infection caused by amoeba generally. But, it strictly refers to infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica. Most individuals who are infected, are asymptomatic in nature and go undiagnosed till their lifetime. But in a few cases, it causes severe fatal conditions.

Symptoms include diarrhoea to dysentery, along with abdominal cramps. It leads to colon inflammation, and perforation. When it reaches blood, it eats up red blood cells leading to anaemia. It is usually transmitted by oral-faecal route through contaminated food and water.

Understanding the options one by one:
(A) Entamoeba coli: Entamoeba coli is non-pathogenic, which means it doesn’t produce infection or disease. Hence, this is not the correct answer.
(B) Entamoeba histolytica: Entamoeba histolytica causes amoebic dysentery in human beings. Hence, this is the correct answer.
(C) Entamoeba gingivalis: Entamoeba gingivalis also causes dysentery in human beings, but that doesn’t refer to amoebic dysentery. Hence, this is not the correct answer.
(D) Amoeba proteus: Amoeba proteus is non-pathogenic organisms found in freshwater, aquatic environments. Thus, this is not the correct answer.

Therefore, Option (B) is correct.

Note: It is important to note that amoebic dysentery or amoebiasis or entamoebiasis refers to infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica only. It should not be confused with any other amoebic infection. Like any other pathogen, even Entamoeba histolytica has the ability to cause severe infection and death, but it is less frequent.