Nawab Anwaruddin Khan was born in 1672 at Gopamau, a place in Awadh's Hardoi District. He was Haji Muhammad Anwar ud-din Khan's uncle.
After the release of Chanda Saheb from Maratha captivity conflict started between Chanda Saheb and Anwaruddin for the nawabship of the Carnatic
Anwaruddin went to Delhi to join the imperial army and soon rose to an elevated position. He was the Yameen-us-Sultanat (right-hand man) of the first Nizam of Hyderabad, Asaf Jah I (a.k.a. Nizam-ul-Mulk).
After 1725, he was also the ruler of the Governor of Eluru and Rajahmundry, Minister of Hyderabad, Faujdar of Korah and Jahanabad. Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir gave him the titles of Anwar ud-din Khan Bahadur. Shahamat Jang through Emperor Shah Alam I, and Siraj ud-Daula through Emperor Muhammad Shah. He was Naib-wazir of the Empire at one time, Srikakulam Faujdar, Rajamahendravaram and Machilipatnam 1724, Hyderabad Nazim 1725-1743.
During the minority of Saadatullah Khan II, on 28 March 1744, Uhammad Anwaruddin was appointed Faujdar of Chicacole, Naib Subadar and regent of the Carnatic. After the death of Anwaruddin, in July 1744, the Nizam appointed him his representative, and Nawab the Carnatic. He thus became the founder of the Nawab of the Carnatic Second Dynasty.
On 3 August 1749, the ageing Nawab Muhammad Anwaruddin, supported by the English, met with the French army at Ambur and was killed at the age of 77 in battle. He was listed in "Ripley's Believe it or not" as the oldest soldier to die on the battlefield. Ripley claimed that gunshot wounds killed the Nawab, but that was not independently confirmed.
In 1746, in the First Carnatic War, the French and the English struggled to gain dominance over each other in India. The Carnatic area became their arena of action.