India gained freedom from the British Raj in 1947, after years of continuous struggle for independence. However, freedom didn’t come without a cost. Along with India’s independence, came the partition. With the creation of Pakistan, the previously united country was divided into two parts of Eastern and Western India. The Indian constitution also came into effect after independence. There was the formation of new states as well. The planning for the overall development of the country also began.
The Formation of A New Yet Divided Nation in India After Independence
In the month of August 1947, India achieved freedom and that is when the Partition happened. Due to this event, about 8 million refugees sought shelter in India from Pakistan. The major problem associated with all the princely states in the county was that each of them had a nawab or a maharaja as the ruler. Each of these individuals was persuaded to join forces with the newly formed nation.
The events of India after Independence saw the division of the population into lower and higher castes. The population mostly consisted of Hindus who worshiped the Hindu gods and goddesses. However, there were some others who practiced other faiths as well. There were different languages for every single state in the country. Not to mention that their attires and dresses were different along with their cuisines and professions too. There was a division in the people and it could be seen with the formation of the new country.
In India after 1947, the main dwelling area for a huge portion of the Indian population was in villages. Peasants and farmers used to depend on the monsoon for the survival of their crops. The rural economy depended a lot on these factors as well. Compared to that, the lives of people in the cities weren’t entirely comfortable as there were crowded slums filled with factory workers who had no access to health care, education, and other basic needs.
Indian History After Independence: The Formation of The Constitution
One of the major events that happened in Indian history after independence was the framing of our constitution. During the time period between 1946 and 1949, there were 300 people in the country who had some meetings of some sort to figure out more about the political future of the country.
These meetings also known as the meetings of the “Constituent Assembly” were held in the capital city of the country, New Delhi. These discussions between the knowledgeable men led to the formation of the Indian Constitution. The first time India’s Constitution was framed was in the year 1950.
One of the main features that held importance in the Indian constitution was the adoption of the adult franchise. All the Indians that were above the age limit of 21 were considered to be adults and hence had to fulfill certain expectations. These people were allowed to cast their votes in the national as well as state elections. India after 1947 chose to provide certain rights to the citizens of the country. All citizens were considered equal before the Indian constitution and the law. Regardless of the citizen's caste, religion, and gender, everyone was considered to be equal in the eyes of the law.
The country also had a very huge population of Christians, Jains, Parsis, Sikhs that practiced other forms of religion which were a bit different from the Hindus. The people belonging to these religions were provided with the same rights while seeking employment opportunities in the private as well as government sector after independence.
Formation of The States After Independence
During the 1920s, the Indian National Congress made a promise that there would be the formation of important committees in India after independence. There would be different provinces provided to different linguistic groups. India was divided on a religious basis.
However, the then Prime Minister and the Deputy Prime Minister were not really supportive of the idea. More information about the topic can be found for the students in India after independence PDF.
With the Marathi speakers, Malayalam, Kannada speakers protesting for their own states, the formation of the different committees and states came to being. The strongest protests were made from the Telugu districts and groups as well. This led to the formation of different states such as Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujrat, and others.
As of 2007, India has been independent for about 60 years in total. India, while still being united is now considered to be a democratic country after Independence. There were different foreign observers who made an assumption that India wouldn’t be able to survive being independent and would be divided with different linguistic groups demanding their very own nation.
Thus, in this article, we covered a brief history during and after independence. We only became independent in 1947 and became a sovereign nation in 1950. It was the time when the Constitution was adopted and India became a republic nation. The major events after independence include the making and adoption of the constitution, Land Reforms, State organizations, Green Revolution, Emergency, Liberalization, privatization and globalization, etc. All these events helped us shape the country and guided us in the right direction.
FAQs on India After Independence
1. Who was the first governor-general of India after independence?
Before the independence of India, the country was ruled by viceroys. However, the role changed after the independence and the position now came to be known as the Governor-General. Lord Mountbatten was the one who replaced the then viceroy of India Lord Wavell in the year 1947. Lord Mountbatten was considered to be the last amongst the viceroys of India and was the first person to be addressed as the Governor-General of the independent country, India. The rule for the partition of Pakistan and India was devised and formulated by Lord Mountbatten and the order came to be known as the Mountbatten Plan.
2. When was the constitution of India formed after independence?
The formation of the Indian constitution happened in the year 1950. This was a result of the Constituent Assembly meetings that were held in Delhi, the capital city of the country. There were 300 participants who were a part of the meetings that were held in order to discuss the political future of India in detail. These meetings led to the framing of the constitution of India. According to the constitution, all the citizens of the country were provided with equal rights when it came to seeking employment and engaging in religious practices and every individual above the age of 21 was considered an adult.
3. What were the new government priorities after independence?
India gained independence after a great struggle in 1947 and got a republic in 1950. It was very necessary for the new government to focus on the economy and to put the country in the right direction. The primary aspect of Indian economy was agriculture and thus the major priority of the government was agriculture sector in the beginning. It was very much required to meet the agricultural demand and supply of the country. For this 5 year plans was envisaged by the planning commission. Later Green Revolution, not only helped in becoming self sufficient but also helped in exports as well.