Maharashtra Board Class 10 Solutions for Geography Chapter 5: Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

VSAT 2022

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Maharashtra Board students of Class 10 have a very important chapter in their syllabus called Natural Vegetation and Wildlife. The concepts are explained in detail in this chapter. Students can gain more details about solving Natural Vegetation and Wildlife questions and the different formulas and techniques used for that. In order to delve deeper into the topic, download the practice set Chapter 5 Class 10 Geography. 

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On the Basis of the Information Given in the Chapter, Figures, and Maps, Complete the Table Below:


Type of forest


Regions in India

Regions in Brazil


Tropical Forests

Broad-leaved evergreen trees


Semi-arid thorny vegetation





Scanty bushes and shrub-like trees and rain-resistant grass




Mixed type of vegetation



Grassland region like the Pampas of



S. No 

Type of Forest


Regions in India

Regions in Brazil


Tropical Forests

Broad-leaved evergreen trees.

Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the Western Ghats. Some parts of North East India.

Amazon Basin, Guyana Highlands.


Semi-arid thorny vegetation

(a) Thorny and shrub-type vegetation.

(b)   Leaves are small in size. Leaves are modified into thorns to minimize evaporation.

Gujarat, Rajasthan, Parts of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.

The north-Eastern part of Brazil.



Scanty bushes and shrub-like trees and rain-resistant grass.

Terai grasslands.

Brazilian Highland.


Tropical semi-deciduous

Mixed type vegetation.

Central India and South India.

Parana Basin and South Eastern part of Brazil.



Grassland region like the Pampas of Argentina.

Foothills of Shiwalik hills and Assam.

Southern Brazil.

Identify the odd man out

1. Forest type of Brazil-

  1. Thorny bush type vegetation

  2. Evergreen forests

  3. The Himalayan Forests

  4. Deciduous forests

Ans: The odd man out is (c) The Himalayan Forests. 

Only India, Nepal, Bhutan, Pakistan, and sections of China have Himalayan forests. The climate of Brazil does not support alpine forests like the forests in the Himalayas.

2. With reference to India-

  1. Mangrove forests

  2. Mediterranean forests

  3. Thorny bush-type vegetation

  4. Equatorial forests

Ans: The odd man out is (b) Mediterranean forest. 

India does not have a Mediterranean forest as it does not have a Mediterranean climate.

3. With reference to the fauna of Brazil-

  1. Anaconda

  2. Tamarin

  3. Macaw 

  4. Lion

Ans: The odd man out is (d) Lion. 

African and Asian regions like India have Lions. Brazil does not have Lions.

4. With reference to the flora of India-

  1. Deodar 

  2. Anjan

  3. Orchid 

  4. Banyan

Ans: The odd man out is (c) Orchid. 

Orchids are not native to India, they are grown in artificial conditions. 

Match the Columns:

Column ‘A’

Column ‘B’

(a) Evergreen Forests

(i) Sundar trees

(b) Deciduous forests

(ii) Pine

(c) Coastal forests

(iii) Pau Brasil

(d) Himalayan Forests

(iv) Khejadi

(e) Thorny and bush-type vegetation 

(v) Teak

(vi) Orchid

(vii) Sal


Column ‘A’

Column ‘B’

(a) Evergreen Forests

(iii) Pau Brasil

(b) Deciduous forests

(vi) Orchid

(c) Coastal forests

(i) Sundar trees

(d) Himalayan Forests

(ii) Pine

(e) Thorny and bush-type vegetation 

(iv) Khejari

Answer in Short:

1. Differentiate between the forest types of Brazil and India.

Ans: The difference between the forest types of Brazil and India is given below:

Forest Type of Brazil

Forest Type of India

Brazil's northernmost section is located in the equatorial zone. It receives a lot of sunlight and rain. Here, one can witness lush evergreen forests.

India's location is far from the equator. Only the Western Ghats and North Eastern hilly regions see heavy rains. Consequently, these areas have evergreen woods.

Brazil's Highland region gets little rain. As a result, tropical grasslands can be seen here.

Deciduous forests cover the peninsula region of India since it receives 1000–2000 millimeters of rain annually.

Brazil lacks big, far-reaching mountains, hence there are no woods of the Himalayan kind there.

Because the Himalayas are present, Himalayan-type forests which are categorized according to height can be found in the north and northeast of India.

The Brazilian Highlands' northeastern region which is sometimes referred to as a Drought Quadrilateral, is home to thorny bushes.

In India, which receives less than 500 mm of rainfall annually, thorny bushes are common. Gujarat, Rajasthan, and Western Ghats' rain shadow regions are where it is primarily found.

2. Correlate wildlife and natural vegetation in India and Brazil.


  • We find a diversity of natural vegetation in Brazil and India depending on favorable geographic conditions. Additionally, different places have varied wildlife based on vegetation.

  • Similar to the Savannah and India's deciduous forest, Brazil's grasslands are home to numerous herbivores and carnivores.

  • Numerous species of birds, insects, reptiles, herbivores, and carnivores live in the deep evergreen forests of India's west, northeast India, and the Brazilian Amazon Basin.

  • Mangroves, a variety of birds, fish, and reptiles including crocodiles, alligators, and anacondas can be found in the coastal forests and marshy regions of the Pantanal and Sunderbans in Brazil.

  • Wildlife depends on flora for food and shelter.

3. What environmental issues are faced by Brazil and India?


  • Brazil's ecosystem is deteriorating as a result of illegal wildlife trafficking, slash-and-burn farming, deforestation, pollution, etc.

  • Numerous endemic species are in danger of going extinct as a result of these issues.

  • India also has to deal with environmental problems including pollution, poaching, and rapidly expanding deforestation.

  • In India, many wildlife species are in danger of going extinct.

4. What are the major causes of the degradation of forests in Brazil and India?


  • Forests are being cleared because cities need more space to grow. Therefore, one of the causes of forest degradation is growing urbanization.

  • Forest areas are being cleared to expand agricultural land. Increasing amounts of land must be put under agricultural production in order to guarantee a steady food supply to fulfill the demands of the world's population. 

  • Forests are being cleared for firewood and other domestic purposes in Brazil and India.

  • Deforestation is caused by slash-and-burn agriculture, also known as Roca in Brazil and Jhum in India.

  • In addition to the mentioned factors, forest fires, pollution, excessive grazing, etc. are also to blame for the decline of forests.

5. Why does the deciduous type of vegetation occupy most of India?


  • The climate and rainfall of a region have an impact on the vegetation there.

  • India is located in the tropical region and experiences year-round monsoon weather.

  • Also, between 1000 and 2000 mm of seasonal rains fall over a significant section of India.

  • In this environment, deciduous woods do well, and during the hot, dry summer, these forests lose their leaves to prevent water loss through evaporation.

  • Trees like teak, bamboo, banyan, peepal, and others can be found in India's deciduous forests.

Give Geographical Reasons 

1. The northern part of Brazil is covered by dense forests.


  • Brazil's northernmost section is located in the equatorial zone.

  • It receives a lot of sunlight and roughly 2000 mm of rain annually.

  • The vegetation is growing quite quickly in this area.

  • As a result, Brazil's northern region is covered in thick, evergreen woods.

2. Vegetation is scarce in the high altitudes of the Himalayas.


  • The temperature falls as height rises.

  • High heights have a very chilly climate. The temperature lowers to - 40°C in Jammu & Kashmir and certain Himalayan regions.

  • Additionally, this area spends most of the year covered in snow.

  • There are very few plant species that can endure such harsh circumstances. At higher altitudes, only trees with seasonal flowers can be found.

  • As a result, the flora is scarce in the Himalayas' high elevation.

3. A wide variety of species of insects is found in Brazil.


  • Most often, woodlands, meadows, and swampy areas are where insects can be found.

  • Numerous insects consume the plant's nectar, grass, and leaves.

  • Brazil's northern regions are home to evergreen rainforests. The Paraguay-Parana river basin and the central regions are home to the grasslands. 

  • Similar to this, the Pantanal region of Brazil has swampy terrain.

  • Brazil, therefore, has a diverse range of insect species.

4. Wildlife in India is decreasing day by day.


  • Due to the massive deforestation, poaching, and pollution that is occurring, wildlife in India is declining day by day.

  • As cities grow to accommodate the expanding population, precious forests are being cut down, which results in the loss of wildlife habitat.

  • Additionally, urbanization has made the environmental issue worse. The existence of many species has been threatened by various forms of pollution.

  • The decrease in wildlife in India has also been attributed to the poaching of animal species.

  • A loss of habitat for wildlife has resulted from agricultural methods like shifting cultivation that has reduced the amount of forest cover.

5. Like India, there is a need for the conservation of forests in Brazil too.


  • Similar to India, Brazil is dealing with the issue of environmental deterioration brought on by deforestation, pollution, slash-and-burn farming, wildlife trafficking, etc.

  • Large-scale deforestation is occurring in both countries as a result of the cutting down of trees for their timber.

  • Additionally, urbanization has made the environmental issue worse. The existence of many species has been threatened by various forms of pollution.

  • Brazil's forest cover has decreased as a result of agricultural techniques like Roca (slash and burn agriculture).

  • Brazil has been impacted by the issue of animal smuggling just like India.

  • As a result, protecting forests is necessary for both Brazil and India.

Use your Brain Power!

1. Find out in which parts of India is agriculture practice like the ‘Roca’ found in India? By what names are they called?

Ans: In India, Roca is known as Slash and Burn cultivation and is practiced in states like Kerela, Karnataka, Andaman, and Nicobar islands.

Give it a Try.

1. Tiger is the national animal of India. The number of tigers is decreasing day by day. The situation is similar to elephants. Find information about such plants and animals. Find out about their habitats. What should be done to conserve these animals? In which regions can this be done? Make a presentation of their possible places.

Ans: These animals and plants which are decreasing day by day are known as Endangered species as they are on the verge of extinction. Some of these plants are the Ebony tree, Malabar Lily, Jeemikanda, and Malavuram and their habitats are Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu respectively. Similarly, some of these animals are Asiatic Lions, The Indian Antelopes, The Bengal Tigers, One Horned Rhinoceros, and their habitats are Gir National Park, Plains, and Grasslands, Deciduous forests, and The Himalayan foothills of India respectively.

Try This


Show the following animals in the outline map of India in fig 5.5 with the help of signs and symbols according to their habitats. Answer the following questions.

  1. Correlate geographical conditions and the flora and fauna there.

  2. Show the habitats of tigers in India with their names on a map.

  3. Why is their habitat found in these regions?


  1. There is an estimate of 18000 varieties of species as flowering plants. It can be said that India has a rich diversity of the flora and fauna in the world.

Most of these flora and fauna can be used as medicine and they have been documented in the eight floristic regions like the western Himalayas and Gangetic plains.

  1. Do it yourself.

  2. Tigers are carnivorous animals and are usually found in Forests, Grasslands, and swamps which are now being developed into cities and towns.

This is because they require space to hunt as it is part of their instinct.

Colors of Both

1. In which country do equatorial forests occupy a greater area? What could be the reason behind it?

  1. Which type of forests found in India are not found in Brazil?

  2. Which type of forests found in Brazil are found in India too?

  3. In which country a greater diversity of vegetation is found? What is the reason behind it?

  4. Considering the climate and vegetation types, in which country will forest-based occupations flourish?


  1. Equatorial forests occupy a greater area in Brazil. The reason behind it could be that Brazil receives maximum rainfall for the whole year and the forests are so dense there that sunlight doesn't reach.

  2. The Himalayan forests are the forests that are found in India but are not found in Brazil.

  3. The deciduous and evergreen forests are the forests that are found in India as well as Brazil.

  4. The country in which greater diversity of vegetation is found in Brazil. The reason behind it can be the heavy rainfall, ample sunlight, and the equatorial climate.

  5. Considering the climate and vegetation types, forest-based occupations will flourish in Brazil.

India vegetation:

Answer the following questions based on figure 5.3

  1. Which forests are found in western snowcapped regions?

  2. On which coast do you mainly find the coastal vegetation?

  3. Which type of forest occupies the maximum area in India? Why?

  4. Where do you find thorny and shrub vegetation and why?


  • Based on figure 5.3 the Himalayan forests are found in the western snowcapped regions.

  • The coastal vegetation is mainly found on the eastern and western coastal plains of India.

  • As Tropical Deciduous forests which are generally also called Monsoon forests grow in areas with rainfall of 70-200 cm, therefore they occupy the maximum area in India.

  • The thorny and shrub vegetation is usually found in dry areas like Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, etc. This is because in these desert areas the plants won’t want to lose their water.

Importance of Maharastra Board Textbook Solutions for Class 10 Geography Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

The class 10 Chapter 5, titled Natural Vegetation and Wildlife for Maharashtra board students, includes all the important details about number progressions and sequences. Students will learn what arithmetic progressions are and how are they represented. The chapter also provides an introduction to the common difference between the consecutive numbers in the progression. Students will be introduced to the General Form of an Arithmetic Progression. The chapter also introduces the concepts of the First Term to the students.

1. Access to solutions by experts: Getting guidance and learning from experts who have curated the answers that focus on learning standards specific to the age group. It also provides well explained and easy to understand solutions for a student.

2. Beneficial for resolving doubts: Sometimes, questions asked in the chapter become challenging to comprehend, especially for students who find Geography difficult. The textbook solutions can present them with elaborative and comprehensive answers or solutions which will benefit them in case of doubts.

3. Learning through mistakes: When a student is trying to solve a question, it is often observed that they get the correct answers but do not follow the proper method. In such cases, textbook solutions can help them understand the experts' approach, which they can use while finding the answers.

4. Practice with the right approach: Practicing the questions by following correct methods and techniques becomes significant for a student. These practice questions become the building blocks for their further question-solving practice. Hence, it is crucial to solving many questions based on a concept with the right approach.

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  • Natural Vegetation and Wildlife is a chapter that demands a thorough understanding of the concepts and details. With the solutions for the chapter, students can properly understand the chapter and its contents in it.

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  • Students can use the solutions to practice more and gain a better understanding of the chapter. This is also going to be a great help during the examinations, and they can score high marks if any questions are asked from this chapter.

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