# Concise Mathematics Class 8 ICSE Solutions for Chapter 2 - Exponents

## ICSE Class 8 Mathematics Chapter 2 Selina Concise Solutions - Free PDF Download

Vedantu Selina Concise Mathematics Class 8 Solutions Chapter 2 - Exponents helps students to understand the basic concepts of Exponents more clearly. Students must first solve the textbook problems regularly to score well in the annual exam. For a better understanding of the concepts, students can refer to Vedantu Selina Solutions Concise Maths Class 8 chapter 2 Exponents PDF, from the links provided here.

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Vedantu Selina solutions can help the students to score excellent marks in their exams. Selina is one of the best ICSE textbook publishers. Class 8 chapter 2 Exponents will help students to calculate the Exponents of the given number. Solved examples after every concept help students gain confidence in solving challenging problems based on Exponents. With the help of Vedantu Selina Solutions Concise Maths Class 8 chapter 2 Exponents, students will be able to understand the problems more clearly.

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Before solving the problems let us revise the basic concepts of exponents.

### Introduction to Exponents

### What are Exponents?

Exponents are the shortcut for repeated multiplication. We use superscripts to represent the number of times the number is multiplied by itself to represent exponents.

For example : 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 28 = 256

n × n × n × n × n × n × n × n × n × n = n10

Exponents make the shortcut method to express greater numbers such as the speed of light, the weight of the Earth, the distance between the Sun and the Earth, etc.

### Exponential Notations

When a number is multiplied by itself more than once, we can use a concise notation to represent the product as shown below.

So a2 can also be read as "a-squared," and a3 as "a-cubed." Also, a1 = a.

The exponent is also called the index, and the exponential notation is also known as the index notations.

We can use the exponential notations to represent the prime factorization of a number.

### Types of Exponents

Exponents can be divided into four types based on the type of power. Types of exponents are:

Positive exponent

Negative exponent

Zero exponent

Rational exponent

Positive Exponents: An expression with a positive exponent can be simplified just by multiplying the base to itself the number of times indicated by the exponent/power.

Example: 34 = 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 = 81

Negative Exponents: An expression that can be simplified by placing 1 in the numerator and the base along with the exponent in the denominator of a fraction.

Example: 5-1 = 1 ÷ 5 = 0.2

Example: 5-4 = 1/54 = 1 ÷ (5x5×5×5) = 1/54 = 1/625 = 0.0016.

In general, a-n = 1/an.

Zero Exponents: Any expression with 0 exponents is equal to 1. The base value has no value during simplification. When the exponent is zero as in 20 the result is 1. Any base with a zero exponent is equal to 1.

Zero exponent examples are 20 = 1, x0 = 1, 19430 = 1.

Rational or Fractional Exponents: The rational exponents will become radical or roots. For example, 31/2 can be written as \[\sqrt{2}\], 65/2 can be written as \[\sqrt{6^{5}}\]

### Writing Large Numbers in Exponent Form

Measurements in science may be very small or very large. For example, the distance between the Earth and the Sun is about 15,00,00,000 km and the mass of a dust particle is about 0.000000000763kg. Scientific notation is a method of expressing numbers in exponent form that is too big or too small to be conveniently written in decimal form. It is used by scientists, mathematicians, and engineers for complex calculations with lengthy numbers.

Instead of writing long trailing or leading zeros, we can write:

15,00,00,000km as 1.5 x 108 km and

0.000000000763kg as 7.63 x 10-10 kg

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