Physics Formulas for Class 10

Physics is a branch of science which deals with the study of matter and energy and their properties and their interaction. In simple words, physics tries to explain how different phenomena occur and how they are impacting us things work.

Physics is the most interesting subject for a student if one becomes familiar with formulas. The physics formulas of 10th class are mentioned in this article along with the concepts in a detailed manner to help the students and develop a strong foundation of the subject.

All Formulas of Physics Class 10

  1. What is Kinetic Energy?

The energy which is possessed by an object due to its motion is called kinetic energy. When force is applied on an object it produces an acceleration thereby producing the kinetic energy. Kinetic energy depends on the velocity and the mass of the object.

Kinetic Energy Formula

The formula for kinetic energy (Ek) is given by

Ek = 1/2 mv2


m = mass of the object

v = velocity of the object

  1. Torque Formula

Torque is the turning effect of force which causes motion in an object. An object undergoes rotational motion, and at the point at which the object rotates is called the ‘axis of rotation’.

Torque Formula is given by

T = F × r × sinθ

T = torque

F = linear force applied on the object

r = distance from the axis of rotation to the point where the application of linear force occurs

θ = angle between F and r

  1. Capacitance Formula

A capacitor is a device which stores electric energy in an electric field. A capacitor is an essential part of any kind of electronic device. The function of a capacitor is to store electric charge and supply it to the circuit whenever necessary. The potential of a capacitor to store electric charge is called its capacitance.

The 10th physics formula for the capacitance of a capacitor is given by:

C = Q/V


C = capacitance (which is measure in farads)

Q = charge (in coulombs)

V = voltage (in volts)

  1. Gravity Formula

Gravity is a force that causes attraction between two objects. It is the same force that causes objects to fall down to the ground. This is also the same force which causes the revolution of the planets around the sun. Therefore, for massive objects which have large mass the force of gravitation is more.

The Formula of Gravitational Force

The gravitational force is directly proportional to the mass of the two objects and is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the objects.

Fg = G*(M¹ * M²)/r²


Fg = force of gravitation

M¹ = mass of the first object

M² = mass of the second object

G = universal gravitational constant which is equal to 6.67 * 10^-11Nm^2 / kg^2

r = distance between the objects

  1. Work Formula

In physics, work is said to be done when a force applied on an object makes the object move. If a constant force is applied, work is calculated as the scalar product of the applied force and the displacement of the object. Work is a scalar quantity, i.e. it doesn't have any direction.

Work is calculated by multiplying the component of force in the direction of displacement with the magnitude of displacement of the object.


W= F × d × cosθ


W = work done by the force.

F = force applied to the object.

d = displacement caused by the force.

θ = angle between the displacement vector and the force vector.

  1. Waves Formulas

A wave is a disturbance in a medium or in space. Waves transfer energy without transferring any actual matter. The waves which travel through a substance, material or any medium are called mechanical waves. As the wave travels through a medium, the particles of the medium are displaced from its mean position in an oscillating manner.

A wave in which the particle of the medium moves in the direction is parallel to the direction of the wave and is called a longitudinal wave.

A wave in which the particle of the medium moves in a direction perpendicular to the direction of the wave is called a transverse wave.

For a transverse wave, the crest is the position of highest displacement of the amplitude of the wave. The distance between two consecutive crests is known as wavelength. The SI unit of wavelength is meter. Wavelength is related to the speed and frequency of the wave as per the following formula.

Wave velocity = frequency× wavelength

This is written as,

v = f×λ


v = velocity

f = frequency

λ = wavelength

  1. Refraction Formula

When light passes from one medium to another medium, its speed changes and it also bends from its original path. This bending of light while passing from one medium to another medium is called refraction. Refraction occurs due to the difference between the densities of the two media.

The physics numerical formula for the refraction of light is based on Snell’s law. When light enters from one medium to another medium having an angle of incidence ‘i’ and refracts by an angle of refraction ‘r’, then according to Snell's law.

Where μ is the refractive index of the second medium with respect to that of the first medium. The refractive index depends upon the material of the medium.

\[n_{1}\]\[Sin\Theta_{1}\] = \[n_{2}\]\[Sin\Theta_{2}\]

Also from this equation


\[n_{1}\] = refractive index of first medium

\[n_{2}\] = refractive index of second medium

\[\Theta_{1}\] = angle of incidence

\[\Theta_{2}\] = angle of refraction

  1. Temperature Formulas

Temperature is a physical quantity which is used to measure the degree of hotness or coldness of an object. The temperature formula is mostly used to calculate the average kinetic energy of particles.

Conversion of Temperature between Celsius scale and Kelvin scale: is given by:

K= C + 273.15

The temperature conversion formula from the Kelvin scale to the Celsius scale is:

C= K - 273.15


C = temperature in Celsius scale

K = temperature in the Kelvin scale


The mentioned concepts and formulas are for physics formulas for class 10.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What are Some Facts About Gravity?

  1. Objects with mass are attracted towards one another

  2. Gravity keeps earth and other planets in orbit.

  3. Tides are due to the rotation of the earth and gravitational effect of the sun and moon.

  4. Since mars has lower gravity as compared to earth, a person weighing around 200 pounds on earth will resemble 76 pounds on mars.

2. Give Some Examples of Kinetic Energy.

A. Radiant Energy - A traditional incandescent light bulb showing two forms of energy when light is turned on.

B. Thermal Energy - When you put frozen pizza in oven, it gets heated up thereby increasing in temperature

C. Sound Energy - When you put your hand on speaker, the one that plays loudly, you will feel its vibration

D. Electrical Energy - A light when it is plugged into a wall outlet and is turned on.