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Elastic Materials

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Last updated date: 02nd Mar 2024
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An Introduction of Elastic Materials

Have you ever stretched a rubber band? Think about why you can stretch a rubber band but not a book. This is because of the phenomenon called elasticity and materials such as a runner band are known as elastic materials. So, let's move on and discuss this in detail.


Elasticity is a material's propensity to regain its original shape after being subjected to forces. Elastic materials are those that after the elastic deformation is eliminated, revert to their original dimensions and shapes. Elastomers are elastic materials that when bent, return to their original shape. Elastic rubber bands show the property of elasticity. Their shapes can be changed on stretching and can come back to their original position when left. In this article, you will learn which materials are elastic and examples of elastic materials. 


Elastic Material


Elastic Material


Different Shapes and Sizes of Elastic Bands


Different Shapes and Sizes of Elastic Bands


Elastic Behaviour of Materials

When we extend a slingshot, the force we apply causes it to deform. However, when we remove the force, the deformation returns to its original shape. This property is known as elasticity, and it indicates that when stress is applied, the body resists any lasting change. When stress is removed, the body returns to its original size and shape. From this, we can easily distinguish which materials are elastic.


Changing and Regaining Shape of Elastic Material


Changing and Regaining Shape of Elastic Material


Let's imagine that a band has been made in a thin steel rod. When it begins to bend slightly, the use of force must be discontinued. The rod doesn't change back to how it was originally. Different sorts of behaviour of materials can be seen depending on its elastic and plastic nature.


Applications of Elastic Material

The following is the list of some of the applications of elastic material:

  • To make living more convenient, safe and stable human-made constructions like skyscrapers and overbridges are designed with elastic materials at important junctures. 

  • They are also used for making pillars and beams. Rubber balls which you use while playing cricket. Your stretchable toothbrush, etc. all have elastic materials.

  • They are used for manufacturing automobile parts.

  • They are used for manufacturing kitchen utensils.

  • There are many more examples where elastic materials are used. Your yo-yo toy also has elastic material attached to it. When you look around, you will also observe some examples. The jumping ball present in your toy box is also made from an elastic material.


Examples of Elastic Material

Now, we are going to see the elastic materials list:

  • Elastin

  • Rubber

  • Nylon

  • Lycra

  • Rubber

  • Gum

  • Wool

  • Silicon

  • Polyester

  • Balloons


They all exhibit elasticity. Since they recover to their previous shape after enduring deformations like compression and expansion, springs are one of the finest examples of elastic force. Toys like spring heads, toy phones, and other items can utilise springs in a variety of ways. The goal of a trampoline is specifically to take advantage of the elastic force for fun. A trampoline is made from a particular elastic material.


Example of Elastic Materials


Example of Elastic Materials


Facts of Elastic Material

An object is elastic if you can twist, bend, stretch, or squeeze it, and when you let go, it returns to its original shape. Most solid materials display some degree of elastic behaviour, but for each material, there is a limit to the amount of the force and the associated deformation within which elastic recovery is achievable. Since their volumes alter in response to pressure, gases and liquids also have elastic qualities. Rubber is the most elastic material, and glass would have the least elasticity. Elasticity is the capacity of a material to return to its former shape after being stretched.


Summary

Some materials swell when you compress them while others stretch if you pull them. They return to their normal size, location, or shape as you release your grip. These substances are referred to as elastic substances, and this property is referred to as elasticity. 


Rubber, an elastic substance used in balloon construction, enables the balloon to stretch when filled with air. Additionally, some fabrics are created with elastic properties. Synthetic fabric with exceptional stretchability is spandex. Clothing for cyclists and swimmers is made from it.

FAQs on Elastic Materials

1. Why does elastic energy exist?

When you extend an elastic band or crush a squishy ball using your hand, you are applying force to an object, which might cause it to momentarily alter its shape.


When this occurs, elastic energy may be trapped inside the object, ready to be released when you let go of the elastic band or relax your hold on the squishy ball and the thing returns to its natural shape. The bonds between the atoms of an object or substance store elastic energy. When these linkages are under stress, they take energy and release it when they are relaxed.

2. Which material has the greatest elasticity?

The most elastic substance is steel. When the pressure is released, an elastic object will return to its original shape. The linear stress-strain curve for steel is the sharpest of any material. A material's elastic modulus will be higher when it is stiffer. Now, when we put the same amount of force on steel and rubber, whose cross-sectional areas are the same, we see that rubber stretches more than steel does. In comparison to steel, rubber produces a far greater amount of strain. This indicates that steel seems to have more elasticity than rubber since it has a higher Young's modulus of elasticity value.

3. What is the property of elasticity?

The property by which a body returns to its original shape after the removal of the force is known as the property of elasticity.