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Accounting Adjustments

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How do Accounting Adjustments Work?

Accounting adjustments are company transactions that haven't been recorded yet. Supplier invoices, customer billings, and cash receipts document most transactions. The accounting software's module for such transactions creates an accounting record for the user.


If such transactions have not been documented by the end of an accounting period or the entry erroneously describes the transaction's effect, the accounting staff corrects entries. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles or International Financial Reporting Standards are used to alter the company's financial statements. Adjustments in accounting are primarily utilized in accrual accounting.


When a corporation changes accounting principles, preceding periods may need accounting modifications. Such a change is carried back to compare financial performance across accounting periods.


Some Accounting Adjustments Examples

The following are some examples of accounting adjustments:

  • Incorporating or subtracting from an allowance for doubtful accounts or an inventory obsolescence reserve.

  • Recognizing earnings from sources for which bills have not yet been sent.

  • Revenue that has been invoiced but has not yet been earned is deferred.

  • Recognizing Expenses Before Receiving Supplier Invoices

  • Putting the writing off costs until the business uses the corresponding asset later.

  • Expenses that have already been paid for are included in this calculation.


Why are Adjusting Journal Entries Important?

Because many businesses operate on a credit or post-payment basis, where products may be delivered at a later date than payment is received, it is not uncommon for an accounting period to finish with an outstanding credit or prepayment invoice. Journal adjustment entries are used to balance any discrepancies in the timing of payments and expenditures. There would be unsettled transactions that have yet to close if the journal did not allow for altering entries.


Types of adjustments

There are just five distinct sorts of adjusting entries, and the distinctions between them are straightforward, so don't let the prospect of creating them scare you off. Below, you'll find detailed explanations of each kind, including some illustrative examples and instructions for filling them out.

  • Accrued Revenues - Accrued revenue is the amount of money earned in one accounting period that isn't counted until a subsequent period.

  • Accrued Expenses - After getting a handle on how accumulated income works, adjusting incurred expenses should be a breeze. They are the costs you incurred in one time period but paid for in another.

  • Deferred Revenues - Deferred income occurs when a customer pays you in advance. It's essential to report the income in the month you provide the service and incur the prepaid costs, even if you're being paid now.

  • Prepaid Expenses - Similar to delayed income, prepaid expenses may be used in the future. Instead of deducting the cost over the period it pertains to, and you make a one-time payment in this situation.

  • Depreciation Expenses - Depreciation is the practice of writing off the cost of an item over a more extended period than the asset's useful life. This is generally done for expensive acquisitions like machinery, automobiles, and structures. You will see a change to the overall cumulative depreciation amount on your balance sheet after any accounting Period in which depreciation occurred. Depreciation is an ongoing cost that will be shown as an expenditure each time it is paid.

Which depreciation method you pick will significantly impact how depreciation is recorded in your financial statements. This transaction involves a substantial amount of money. Thus it's rather involved.


Journal Entries For Adjustments in Final Accounts


Date

Particulars

LF

Amount (DR.)

Amount (Cr.)

1.

Adjustment of Closing Stock

Closing Stock A/C

To Trading A/C

(Recording ending inventory)



XXX



XXX

2.

Adjustment of Outstanding Expenses in Final Accounts

Expense A/C

Input CGST A/C

Input SGST A/C

To Outstanding Expense A/C

(Recording unpaid expenses)




XXX

XXX

XXX






XXX

3.

Adjustment of Prepaid Expenses in Final Accounts

Prepaid Expense A/C

To Expense A/C

(Recording expenses paid in advance, GST paid is not transferred in Prepaid Expense A/C)




XXX




XXX

4.

Adjustment of Accrued Income in Final Accounts

Accrued Income A/C

To Income A/C

To Output CGST A/C

To Output SGST A/C

To Output IGST A/C

(Recording income earned but not received)




XXX




XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

5.

Adjustment of Income Received in Advance in Final Accounts

Income A/C

To Income Received in Advance A/C

To Output CGST A/C

To Output SGST A/C

(Recording income received but not earned)




XXX





XXX

XXX

XXX

6.

Adjustment of Bad Debts in Final Accounts

Bad Debts A/C

To Debtor's A/C

(Recording bad debts)

Profit and Loss A/C

To Bad Debts A/C

(Bad debts transferred to Profit & Loss A/C)




XXX




XXX

7.

Adjustment of Further Bad Debts in Final Accounts

Bad Debts A/C

To Debtor's A/C

(Recording further bad debts)




XXX




XXX

8.

Adjustment of Provision for Doubtful Debts in Final Accounts

Profit and Loss A/C

To Provision for Doubtful Debts A/C

(Recording provision for doubtful debts)




XXX




XXX

9.

Adjustment of Provision for Discount on Debtors in Final Accounts

Profit and Loss A/C

To Provision for Discount on Debtors A/C

(Recording provision for discount on debtors)





XXX





XXX

10.

Adjustment of Interest on Capital in Final Accounts

Interest in Capital A/C

To Capital A/C

(Recording interest on capital)

Profit and Loss A/C

To Interest on Capital A/C

(Interest charged on capital transferred to Profit & Loss A/C)




XXX



XXX




XXX



XXX

11.

Drawings of Goods for Personal Use in Final Accounts

Drawings A/C

To purchase A/C

To Input CGST A/C

To Input SGST A/C

(Recording drawings in the form of goods for personal use)




XXX




XXX

XXX

XXX

12.

Abnormal or Accidental Loss in Final Accounts (Goods Not Insured)

Profit and Loss A/C

To Trading A/C

To Input CGST A/C

To Input SGST A/C

(Recording total value of abnormal loss)




XXX




XXX

XXX

XXX

13.

Abnormal or Accidental Loss in Final Accounts (Goods Insured)

Accidental Loss A/C Debit 

To Trading A/C

To Input CGST A/C

To Input SGST A/C

Insurance Claim A/C

Profit and Loss A/C

To Accidental Loss A/C

(Adjusting the insurance claim received)




XXX




XXX

XXX




XXX

XXX

XXX



XXX


Conclusion

When using the accrual method of accounting, adjusting journal entries are made to document transactions that have happened but have not been appropriately documented. Following the close of an accounting period, companies must make necessary adjustments to their general ledger to ensure compliance with the matching and revenue recognition standards.


Accruals, deferrals, and estimations are the most prevalent forms of revising journal entries. Accrual accounting requires its usage at the end of each accounting period. Cash accounting eliminates the requirement for corrective journal entries for businesses.

Last updated date: 26th May 2023
Total views: 58.2k
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FAQs on Accounting Adjustments

1. What are the goals of producing the final accounts with adjustments?

The following is a list of the goals that should be accomplished while compiling the final accounts with adjustments:

  • For determining whether a company made a profit or a loss during the accounting year.

  • Obtaining an understanding of the company's current financial standing.

  • For providing users of accounting information (such as owners, creditors, investors, and other stakeholders) with information about the financial health of the company that they have an interest in.

2. How are adjustments in final accounts determined?

Adjustments in final accounts may be determined as follows:

  • Record all of the items and changes included in the trial balance.

  • Record debit items on the expenditure side of the P&L account or assets side in the balance sheet

  • Don't forget to put credits on the income side of the trade P&L account or the liabilities side of the balance sheet.

  • Balance the profit and loss account and calculate the profit or loss from the trial balance

  • Add any profit gained to the capital on the liabilities side of the balance sheet.

  • Make a total of the balance sheet.

3. What are financial statements with adjustments?

To bring your revenue and spending into line with your financial records, you may need to make an adjusting entry to your books. In accounting, adjusting entries are often recorded after a period has closed. The end of the month or the end of the year are both excellent times for this.


Adjusting entries are supplementary journal entries made before preparing financial statements to verify that the company's financial records follow revenue recognition and matching rules.