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Electronic Mail

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What is an E-mail?

E-mail stands for Electronic Mail or Electronic Mailer. The most commonly used feature of the networks in the field of communication is e-mail. It is the transmission of messages from one computer to another. Communication can take place between two to many users. It not only sends the message in text format, but also we can add images, and documents in the form of PDFs, videos, or other attachments. 

The person who has to send a certain message is called the sender and the one who receives it is called the receiver. In order to have successful communication, each user should have a unique email address (it is just like posts, where each post is sent to persons with a unique home address). The e-mail address may look something like this

Copy of The extent of email used today

Copy of the Extent of Email Used Today

When was the First Email Sent?

E-mail is much older when compared to the internet. The first-ever e-mail was sent to computers in 1965 by using the MIT program called a mailbox. By using this program the user can type a message and send it. Whereas the receiver can see the message only after logging in to the computer. 

Whereas in 1969 the first message using ARPANET was sent from computer to computer by the US Department of Defence. 

ARPANET: Advanced Research Projects Agency Network

It is a kind of network that connected all the computers that are present in that department.

The first message was sent using ARPANET

The First Message was Sent using ARPANET

Later in 1972, Ray Tomlinson developed the ARPANET into ARPANET’s networked e-mail system and invented electronic mail. It is the one which we use today. Here his contribution was “@” which indicated the destination address of the message to be sent. It got tremendous popularity as people wondered how one can send an electronic mail to the others who are completely not present in the same place. 

In 1993, internet use increased and electronic mail was replaced by “E-mail”. Then Yahoo, Hotmail, AOL (America Online), and Echomail platforms were launched. Whereas the year 2004 completely changed the history of E-mail with the launch of Gmail (a platform to send an email). 

The overall history of e-mail in computer networks can be something like this,

History of E-mail

History of E-mail

Mailing Format

The E-mail can be divided into three main components:

  • Message Envelope

  • Message Header

  • Message Body

E-mail format

E-mail Format

Structure of email

Structure of Email

Types of Email

Emails are broadly classified into three categories:

Types of Emails

Types of Emails

  • Informal: It is sent to friends and family. There are no rules for writing an email of this type, and one can use any language.



Subject: Inviting for a birthday party

Hello ABC!

Hope you are doing well. I am very excited to invite you to my brother's birthday party tomorrow at XYZ Hotel from 6:00 pm to 9:00 pm. The theme of the party is “Spiderman”.

Join us at the party and let us have a great time together!

See You Soon


  • Semi-formal: It is sent to colleagues and teammates. We can use simple language here, and the messages can be casual or friendly in nature.



Subject: Intra-college Painting Competition.

Hello Everyone!

This is to convey to all of you guys that there is an intra-college Painting competition held on our college campus on Dec 27 from 11:00 am in Room no 2. Whoever is interested is asked to take part in the competition.

Feel free to contact me for any more information.



(Class monitor)

  • Formal: It is used to communicate to the government department, schools, businesses, or any officers. Here certain rules have to be followed like text should be in respectful language. You shouldn’t add any unwanted things like jokes, funny text etc. Writing a subject is always mandatory.



Subject: Requesting the extension of the deadline for the project

Dear sir,

Since we are facing an error in the platform for project 123 I request you to extend the completion date of the project to this weekend.

Kindly look into the matter.

Thanks and Regards,


(Project Head)

There are other kinds of emails that are used today:

  • Promotional email: This is a business to business email that mentions the products or services of a company.

  • Transactional email: It is related to business deals or transactions.

  • Plain-text email: In this type of email only a text message is sent.

  • Newsletters: It is the report that is sent by the companies or organisations to their employees or subscribers about the company’s growth or achievements.

Evolution of communication

Evolution of Communication

Uses of E-mail

You can use email for the following purposes:

  • It is easy to use and can be accessed easily.

  • Can share information easily.

  • We can send messages at any time.

  • Can connect to people all over the world by sitting at your home.

  • Can work with others.

  • Communication can be done with many people at the same time.

Advantages and Disadvantages of E-mail



It is free of cost.

In the case of conveying long messages, it takes a lot of time.

Communication can be done globally.

There are chances of getting ignored or no response in cases of emergency.

Easy access as it is available at our fingertips.

Have to deal with unwanted messages.

Communication happens faster.

There are chances of getting the message delivered to the wrong person due to a change in email address.

Email Etiquette

Email Etiquette

Email Etiquette

Interesting Facts

  • First spam message was sent to the ARPANET in the year 1978.

Scariest facts about email

Scariest Facts about Email

  • The first email message sent was “Hello, have a good day!”.


Email or Electronic mail is the most common form of communication either formally or informally. However, all the types of communication through email may sound similar but if we follow certain rules then the messages are conveyed easily. 

Learning by Doing

1. Solve the given puzzle.

  • Solve the given puzzle

Solve the Given Puzzle

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FAQs on Electronic Mail

1. Write the difference between SMS and Email.

Even though SMS and email do the same job there are some differences between them,



Only short messages can be sent.

Can send longer messages.

Can only send text messages.

Can send files, images and videos, along with text messages.

Usage of the internet is not required.

Internet connection is required.

2. What are the steps to be followed to create an email?

Email can be created by following simple steps,

  • Firstly add the email address of the receiver.

  • Keep the subject, it should be the summary of the overall email. For example, if you are sending an email inviting a person to a meeting then the subject should be the purpose of the meeting.

  • Next comes the body of the message, starting with a greeting formally. For example Hello or Good morning.

  • Add the message you want to send, including images or any files if required.

  • Conclude by adding a signature at the end.

3. Write an introduction mail?



Subject: My introduction

Dear students,

I am XYZ, I am your new Biology professor. I am from Bangalore, I am very much excited to meet you all in the class tomorrow. 

Thanks and Regards


(Biology Professor)