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What is Republic Day and When is it Celebrated in India?

By Shiwani PandeyJanuary 01, 2023
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Republic day is celebrated every year in India on January 26 to commemorate the adoption of the Indian Constitution that came into force in 1950.

India became independent on August 15, 1947, but it didn’t have a constitution. For its initial three years, the country remained administered by the laws & regulations based on a common law system known as the Government of India Act of 1935, which the British Government introduced.

After a couple of days, a drafting committee was established to draft the Indian Constitution under the supervision of Dr BR Ambedkar as the chairman. It took two years to design & form the Constitution of India.

What is Republic Day and When is it Celebrated in India?

Also Read: Republic Day 2023 - History, Significance & Why Do We Celebrate It|

Finally, on January 26, 1950, the Constitution of India came into effect. Each year, the people of India celebrate the day with utmost zeal and enthusiasm. The President of India will hoist the national flag of India at the Red Fort, New Delhi. The main attraction of this day is the Republic Day parade that starts from Rajpath, Delhi, and ends at India Gate.

In the year 2023, it will mark India's 74th Republic Day. It is one of three Indian national holidays. Let’s read on to know what Republic Day is in detail.

What is Republic Day?

Want to get more Republic day information? August 15, 1947, the nation gained freedom from British dominance following the Indian independence movement. To date, the country didn’t have an independent constitution to protect the rights of Indian citizens and run the nation's administration.

Later on August 29, a drafting committee was established to draft a permanent & independent constitution for the country. The committee was headed, supervised & administered by Dr BR Ambedkar as Chairman of the committee. On November 4, 1947, the constitution of India was drafted and submitted by Ambedkar to the Constituent Assembly. Several sessions were conducted for around two years before finally drafting the constitution. On January 24, 1950, around 308 members of the assembly signed the agreement, and finally, on January 26, 1950, two days later, the constitution came into effect. It was also the day Dr Rajendra Prasad started his first tenure as the President of the Indian Union.

Now, you know that our Independence Day celebrates attaining freedom from British Rule. On the other hand, January 26 marks the adoption of the Indian Constitution and the country's transition to a republic.

Every year, 26 January Republic day is observed to commemorate the constitution of India coming into force. The date of January 26 was chosen since, on this day in 1929, the Indian National Congress proclaimed the announcement of India's Independence (Purna Swaraj). 

With the establishment of a separate constitution, the country became a sovereign nation free from British dominance. From this day on, India started to be governed by its constitution, written by BR Ambedkar on January 26, 1950. Since then, the day has been celebrated as the National Holiday.

What Significance Does a Republic Nation Have?

After gaining freedom from the British rulers, the country needed a separate constitution with administrative laws & regulations to govern the people of India. The drafting committee enrolled an independent constitution under Dr BR Ambedkar's supervision on this historic day. It finally came into effect on January 26, 1950, and transitioned the country into an independent republic.

The celebration on this day signifies the importance of Republic day when individual India started to be governed by its own rules and bylaws. The significant celebrations of this day include the Republic day parade, the exhibition of military equipment, the national flag hoisting, and several cultural events. The constitution of India is the largest in the world, consisting of procedures, powers, duties, fundamental rights of citizens, and principles of the government of India.

So, the brief answer to “what is Republic day and its importance is that on this historic day, the Indian constitution was officially adopted in 1950. It replaced the British colonial Government of India Act (1935) as the nation’s governing text. On January 26, 1950, the preliminary statement to the Constitution of India representing the essential principles of the Constitution came into force. This further transitioned our country to a sovereign republic.

Our Indian Constitution lays down fundamental rights of the citizens of India, irrespective of their political beliefs. It also lays down a few fundamental duties for all the citizens of India to abide by.

According to the Constitution of India, “It proclaims India a sovereign, liberal, secular, elected republic nation assuring its citizens of fair justice, equality, and freedom and efforts to support fraternity among them.”

How was the Indian Constitution Drafted & Established?

We know the significance of the Republic day year of India, ie. January 26, 1950, as on this day, the constitution of India came into force after gaining independence from British dominance. But who drafted it? Dr Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar, popularly known as Baba Saheb, was the man under whose supervision & chairmanship the Constitution of India was drafted. He is why we celebrate 26 January Republic day every year.

He was the leader of the drafting committee that established the comprehensive structure of the nation’s constitution, procedure, powers, responsibilities & rights of government institutions. Several sessions were held over 2 years, 11 months, and 18 days before finally adopting the Constitution of India in the presence of 308 members.

Countries that Inspired the Making of the Indian Constitution

The Indian constitution was inspired by sovereignty, democracy, and socialist ideologies that played a significant part in the constitutions of different world countries. For instance, the ideals of equality, liberty, freedom of speech and expression present in our preamble were inspired by the France constitution. To add further, social, economic and political justice ideals were taken from the USSR constitution. Not just that, the Indian constitution added features of Fundamental Rights from the US constitution and a parliamentary government system from the UK's unwritten constitution. It is often said that the Indian constitution is the composition of the great ideologies and values that can hold the diverse elements of its society together.

Summing Up

Now you know the history, celebrations, and significance of Republic Day in India celebrated with utmost pride & enthusiasm all over the country. This day is a gazetted holiday in India every year to remember the adoption of the Constitution of India by Dr Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar. 

Last updated date: 26th Sep 2023
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FAQs on What is Republic Day and When is it Celebrated in India?

1. Why is Republic Day celebrated in India?

Republic Day is celebrated in India every year to commemorate the adoption of the constitution of India on January 26, 1950.

2. Is it the 75th Republic Day of India?

This year, in 2023, India will mark its 73rd National Republic Day on 26th January 2022. 

3. Why was our Constitution adopted on 26 January?

The date of 26 January was chosen to celebrate Republic day in India as on this day in 1930, the Indian National Congress proclaimed Complete Independence or Purna Swaraj.