The term GMO stands for genetically modified organism. The DNA present in the genetically modified organism is changed or altered using any of the genetic engineering techniques. Various steps are involved in the process of genetically modified organisms. Genetically modified organisms are highly sustainable to the environment.Complete answer:
Genetically modified organisms refers to an organism in which the genes of the organism are altered. The alteration of the genes is done using genetic engineering techniques. Wide varieties of animals, plants, and microorganisms are genetically modified.
-Gene transfer can be done within the same species or even across the species. Various steps are involved in the process of genetic modification. The gene which is to be inserted needs to be first isolated from the host organism and later combine it with genetic elements. Promoter, terminator, and a selectable marker are the genetic elements used in the genetic modification process.
-For inserting the isolated gene into the host genome various techniques are available. A new gene with cry protein is inserted in the BT brinjal which protects it from getting infected by the ball worms. A gene that produces pro-vitamin A is introduced in the golden rice. By using the technique of genetic engineering, a sheep called tracy is produced. The first sheep which was made by using the cloning technique is dolly sheep.
-The process which involves the production of individuals with either identical or virtually identical DNA by a natural or artificial method is called cloning. Dolly sheep was the first mammal to be cloned from an adult somatic cell.
-Dolly was formed by using somatic cell nuclear transfer. A somatic cell from an adult was isolated and then inserted into the ovum of the sheep. The hybrid cell is made to divide by providing an electric shock to form a blastocyst. This blastocyst is then implanted into the female sheep to undergo normal pregnancy. Therefore, Dolly is not a product of GMOs.So, option D is the correct answer.Note:
The easiest organism to engineer is the bacteria which is used for the purpose of food production, research, art, and agriculture. For inserting genetic information into the host genome, viruses play an important role as vectors. For controlling mosquitos which are the cause of deadly disease, genetic engineering has proposed a way.