Which of the following conservation strategies do not directly involve community participation?
A. Joint Forest Management
B. Beej Bachao Andolan
C. Chipko movement
D.Demarcation of wildlife sanctuaries.

91.8k+ views
Hint: Biodiversity across the globe is threatened today like never before. To conserve the accelerating loss of biodiversity people are adopting different techniques. These techniques can be divided into in situ and ex situ conservation techniques.

Complete Answer:
There are many ex-situ conservation techniques that have been launched to conserve biodiversity in a more efficient and effective manner. Ex-situ techniques refer to the ones in which wildlife species are given an environment similar to their natural habitats in faraway places. These techniques include seed banks, zoological parks, tissue culture, etc.
In situ techniques are the ones in which in an attempt to restore and protect the species of plant and habitat they are conserved in their natural habitat. Setting up of national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and biosphere reserves are different ways to implement in situ conservation.
Community plays a very important role in the conservation of biodiversity. Joint forest management was a collective effort by local communities and the government in the 1980s. Chipko movement included mass participation of local communities against deforestation. Beej Bachao Andolan is launched to protect not only the traditionally raised seeds but also the traditions of the local communities. However, the demarcation of the wildlife sanctuaries is done solely by the government and forest department.

Thus, option (D) is correct.

Note: In India, we have over 550 wildlife sanctuaries covering almost of \[3.64\% \] of the total land area of the country. The government of India has also set up 18 biosphere reserves to slow down the accelerating biodiversity loss.