What were the effects of the industrial revolution in India?
Before the beginning of industrial revolution, India used to shine in the world chart for its cotton textile industry. These cotton things used to get exported to different parts of the world which includes today’s Europe, America, and the Middle East among others. As a matter of fact, India is documented to have dominated the world’s cotton textile markets during the 1750s. As India was the land of cheap labour, production was of high quality with low priced calicoes. It is not a matter of surprise that at the end of 17th century, Indian calicoes were popular in Britain. However, things got changed after the industrial revolution. Below are the good and bad effects of the industrial revolution:
1. The discovery of steam power and its practice from the year 1815 created threat to the Indian textile industry.
2. The inventions of the spinning mule and power loom became more efficient and effective because of steam power. Consequently, it had reduced the cost of British cotton by 85% and made it internationally competitive. By the year 1820, Britain had become the leading world
3. Indian farmers were forced to produce cotton plantation so that it can fuel English factories as India was then under British rule.
4. Industrial Revolution brought severe consequences to society. Farmers were forced to grow cash crops in place of food crops, which resulted in awfully deadly famines in India.
5. For increasing production, the Factory owners used to hire unskilled labour, profited greatly by using children and women to run the machines. In the tender age of 6 years, many children were already working 14 hours a day in factories.
6. Due to Industrial Revolution, urban cities started getting overcrowded day by day.
7. There were some positive effects of Industrial Revolution also. The introduction of assembly line and factories, electricity development, and the railroads all these things contributed to faster and more efficient production of goods and materials.
8. Funding of schools and the enactment of child labour laws also came into place. As a result, the Industrial Revolution enhanced both economic production and the new lifestyle of common people.