Hint: Defection suggests an absence of character — as should be obvious by taking a look at its Latin roots, which come from the word defectionum, signifying "abandonment, revolt, disappointment."
-Example of defection is the actions of a politician named Gaya Lala in 1967.
Let us review the options and discuss the answer.
Option A.-A defector is essentially an individual in governmental issues who surrenders his own political group and joins another union for advantage. This term is additionally applied, regularly deprecatory, to any individual who changes reliability to another religion, sports group, ideological group, or another opponent group. In that sense, the defector is frequently viewed as a trickster by his original side.
-So as to stop this, the Anti-Defection Law appeared. The Indian government forestalled political abandonments through the 52nd Amendment Act of 1985. This alteration is known as Anti-Defection Law. It plans to fortify the texture of the Indian parliamentary majority rules system. It controlled untrustworthy political rebellions.
Thus, it is the correct option.
Option B. Change of the preference of the voters - this does not qualify as defection as voter’s preferences could change according to the manifestos of each party and their performance over the years. Thus, it is an incorrect option.
Option C. Internal politics of the voters - this does not qualify as defection as the ideas and voices of the voters are independent of the Constitution as the anti-defection law is meant only for the members of a party. Thus, it is an incorrect option.
Option D. Change of the party before the election - this does not qualify as defection based on the very definition of defection. It would be considered as defection if a person changes party after elections. Thus, it is an incorrect option.
Therefore, the correct answer is Option A.
Note:- On account of Kihoto Hollohan versus Zachillhu, it was contended that the anti-defection law is against the right to speak freely of dissent, the option to contradict, and the opportunity of still, small voice.
-The High Court decided that the law is focused on attending to deceitful abandonments, which cannot be secured under the opportunity of still, small voice or the option to difference or scholarly opportunity.