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The muscles helping in getting warmth in the testes are
(a) Cremaster
(b) Dartos and cremaster
(d) Gubernaculum
(c) Mesorchium

Last updated date: 13th Jun 2024
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Hint: Sperm production requires a temperature below $2^\circ \ C- 2.5^\circ \ C$ than the normal body temperature which is maintained by the muscles that are associated with the scrotum.

Complete step by step answer:
The scrotal septum divides the scrotum into two sacs, each containing a single testis. The septum is made up of muscle tissue called the dartos muscle, which is composed of bundles of smooth muscle fibers. Each testis in the scrotum is associated with the cremaster muscle. In response to cold temperature these muscles contract. The contraction of these muscle fibers regulates the temperature of the scrotum.
So, the correct answer is 'dartos and cremaster'.

Additional information:
- A pair of the testis that is oval pinkish in color suspended outside the abdominal cavity. They are considered as primary sex organs.
- Testis are present within the scrotum which is associated with cremaster muscle and dartos muscle.
- A fibrous cord that holds the testis in the scrotum and connects the testis with the bottom of the scrotum is called the gubernaculum
- Testis are connected to the dorsal wall by a fibrous sheath called mesorchium.
- Sperm production requires $2^\circ \ C - 2.5^\circ \ C$ than the normal body temperature. When the temperature turns cold both dartos and cremaster muscles contract.
- Contraction of the cremaster muscle moves the testes closer to the body by that it can absorb heat from the body.
- Contraction of the dartos muscle keeps the scrotum tight to reduce heat loss.
- The above actions get reversed when the temperature becomes warm.

Note: Cremaster muscle is a series of small bands of skeletal muscle that come down as an extension of the internal oblique muscle through the spermatic cord to surround the testis. Dartos muscle is found in the subcutaneous layer of the scrotum.