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The cause of cretinism is
A. Hypothyroidism
B. Hypoparathyroidism
C. Hyperthyroidism

Last updated date: 13th Jun 2024
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Hint: Cretinism results in growth retardation, developmental delay, and other abnormal features. Cretinism can be due to deficiency of iodine in the mother's diet during pregnancy.

Complete Answer:
Cretinism is an intense deficiency of thyroid hormone in newborns. It results impaired neurological function, stunted growth, and physical deformities. The condition may also arise because of a difficulty with the baby’s thyroid gland, or a loss of iodine in the mother’s body during pregnancy. A baby’s body requires iodine to make thyroid hormones. These hormones are essential for healthy growth, brain, and nervous system development.

Now, let us find the solution from the option.
- Cretinism is a state of critically inhibited mental and physical growth because of untreated congenital shortage of thyroid hormones that is also known as congenital hypothyroidism, usually occurs because maternal hypothyroidism. This condition in the newborn can be also caused by badly developed or not normal small thyroid gland and a genetic abnormality that influences thyroid hormone production.
- Hypoparathyroidism is an unusual situation in which the human body forms typically less range of parathyroid hormone (PTH).
- Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) occurs when our thyroid gland formed excessive thyroxine hormone.
- Hyperparathyroidism is a condition in which one or more of the parathyroid glands become overactive and secrete too much parathyroid hormone (PTH).

Thus, the correct option is A. i.e. Hypothyroidism.

Note: Symptoms of cretinism may include goiter, poor length growth in infants, reduced adult stature, thickened skin, hair loss, enlarged tongue, a protruding abdomen; delayed bone maturation and puberty in teenager; and neurological impairment, mental deterioration, hold up ovulation process, and infertility in adults.