Process of transport of food via the phloem. Enter 1 word only.
Hint: Phloem is a kind of transporting vascular tissue which acts as a mode of transport of sugars from source tissues to sink tissues. Phloem also helps in transportation of various proteins like mRNA and other proteins.
Complete answer: The one word to denote transportation of food via Phloem is “Translocation”. Sucrose and amino acids are transported by Phloem up and down through the plant. The process of translocation involves transportation of food into sieve tubes from where food can travel upward or downward to all the parts of the plant. The food can also transport to roots.
Translocation happens when energy is utilized from the ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) that provides osmotic pressure required for movement of food upward or downward through the plant. Osmotic pressure changes the level of water between the part to which food is to be transported and the water outside that part of the plant. When there is a difference between the amount of water present, the food travels inside the part of the plant when water inside that part is less than the water outside that part of the plant and vice-versa. ATP is the organic molecule which helps in undertaking all processes and cellular mechanisms in living beings.
The elements that slow down the process of Translocation are: • Chilling of petiole through which food is transported from leaf rightward. • Lack of oxygen reduces the rate of translocation. • Killing of phloem cells also depresses the process of Translocation in phloem.
Note: Four main elements of Phloem are sieve tubes, companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma cells. In plants, phloem transports food from leaves to rest of the parts of the plant.