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Last updated date: 01st Dec 2023
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MVSAT Dec 2023

Pauling's electronegativity values for elements are useful in predicting
(A) polarity of bonds in molecules
(B) Position of element in electrochemical series
(C) Coordination number
(D) Dipole moment of various molecules

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Hint: The tendency for an atom of a certain chemical element to attract shared electrons (or electron density) while forming a chemical connection is known as electronegativity. The electronegativity of an atom is determined by its atomic number as well as the distance between its valence electrons and the charged nucleus.

Complete answer:
The technique of computation first presented by Linus Pauling is the most widely utilised. On a relative scale ranging from 0.79 to 3.98 (hydrogen = 2.20), this yields a dimensionless number known as the Pauling scale ( $ {\chi _r} $ ). When different calculation methods are employed, it is customary to quote the findings on a scale that spans the same range of numerical values: this is known as an electronegativity in Pauling units. Electronegativity is a characteristic of an atom in a molecule, not a property of an atom alone, as is commonly assumed.
The notion of electronegativity was initially suggested by Linus Pauling in 1932 to explain why the covalent connection between two distinct atoms (A–B) is stronger than the average of the A–A and B–B bonds. This "extra stability" of the heteronuclear bond is owing to the contribution of ionic canonical forms to the bonding, according to valence bond theory, of which Pauling was a prominent proponent.
The electronegativity difference between atoms A and B is determined by:
 $ |{\chi _{\text{A}}} - {\chi _{\text{B}}}| = {({\text{eV}})^{ - 1/2}}\sqrt {{E_{\text{d}}}({\text{AB}}) - \dfrac{{{E_{\text{d}}}({\text{AA}}) + {E_{\text{d}}}({\text{BB}})}}{2}} $
The polarity of molecules may be predicted using Pauling's electronegativity values for elements. When the electronegativity difference between two elements is large, the molecule is extremely polar; when the electronegativities of two elements are close or nearly identical, the bond formed between them is non-polar.
Hence option A is correct.

Pauling was able to create relative values for all of the elements by assigning a value of 4.0 to Fluorine (the most electronegative element). This was the first time he discovered that an atom's electronegativity was controlled by its location on the periodic table, and that electronegativity tended to rise as you travelled from left to right and bottom to top along the chart. From Fluorine (most electronegative = 4.0) to Francium (least electronegative = 0.7), Pauling's scale of electronegativity has a wide range of values.