Myxoedema is a disorder of a. Parathyroid gland b. Adrenal gland c. Pituitary gland d. Thyroid gland
Hint: Endocrine glands are the ductless glands that release hormone directly into the blood and then the blood carries it all around in the body. The study of endocrine gland and hormones is called endocrinology.
Complete answer: > Parathyroid gland These are two pairs of ovoid, reddish brown, small button like structures located upon the four corners of the thyroid gland. It secretes parathormone that regulates the metabolism of calcium and phosphate. Its hypersecretion causes hypoparathyroidism resulting in muscular pain and crap while hypersecretion causes hyperparathyroidism which causes extensive decalcification of bones resulting in bone deformities and fractures.
> Adrenal glands These are a pair of yellowish colored, pyramid shaped glands that are present on the upper border of the kidneys. It secretes various hormones like adrenaline, nor adrenaline, aldosterone, sex corticoids like androgens and estrogens.
> Thyroid gland It is the largest endocrine gland that lies on the ventral and lateral sides of the upper part of the trachea. It secretes two hormones thyroxine and thyrocalcitonin. Myxoedema occurs due to deficiency of thyroxine in adults. The person has low metabolic rate, low body temperature, reduced heart rate, pulse rate, blood pressure, and cardiac output. The person is less alert and his face and hands become swollen due to the deposition of albuminous myxomatous tissue. It is more common in females and leads to irregular menstrual cycle and reproductive failures.
> Pituitary gland It is a small, pea-shaped, pinkish colored gland that lies in a depression called the sella turcica of the skull. It is anatomically divided into posterior and anterior pituitary that secrete different hormones. Posterior pituitary secretes only oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone while anterior pituitary secretes six hormones- FSH, ADH, Prolactin, TSH, growth hormone, and corticotropin.
Hence, the correct answer is option (D).
Note: Hormones are the biologically active, chemical substances that act as chemical messengers and are secreted in small amounts to maintain the normal physiology and functions of the body. Hormonal disorders cause disease or defects in the body.
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