Hint: Greece and Phoenicia in the ancient times established their control over lands and colonised them whichever they thought to be uninhabited. The Roman Empire too colonised Western Europe, North Africa and West Asia.
Complete answer: Colonization or colonialism is the policy of one country’s people dominating the other country’s specific territories and settling down there. Colonization is carried out generally with the aim to establish economic supremacy. The indigenous people are exploited in the hands of the colonisers and the rulers force their religion, language, economics and other beliefs upon the local people. The colonisers rule over the local people in order to secure their labour or resources.
Colonialism has strongly come to be associated with the European colonial period during the 15th century. This is the period when the European states began to colonise various parts of the world rapidly. Previously the aims of the colonisers were to improve the economy of the home country by expanding exports and restricting imports. The colonised countries were forbidden to trade with any other country except their own. However the British opened up the policy of free trade by the end of the mid 19th century which included only some restrictions and tariffs.
Option A is the correct answer.
Note: India had been colonised by the British for 200 years. India achieved independence on 15th August 1947. All colonial empires were forced to give up their colonies after the Second World War. This is the period where all colonies received their independence.