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Man with thick lips, dirt deposited on the tongue, low heart beating rate, with an excess amount of cholesterol in the blood, is supposed to be suffering from which abnormality
(a) Cretinism
(b) Hashimoto disease
(c) Myxoedema
(d) Addison’s disease

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Last updated date: 18th Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint: The abnormality with the symptoms mentioned is caused due to under-functioning of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland and its hormones are responsible for the functioning of proper metabolism in the body and thus under-functioning of the thyroid results in the improper breakdown of food.

Complete Answer:
The abnormality Myxoedema shows the symptoms of thick lips along with swollen face and hands. The low beating rate of the heart and an excess amount of cholesterol are all symptoms of a decrease in the metabolism of the body.
The term myxoedema is used for any form of severe hypothyroidism no matter what may be the cause of it. The most common cause is however chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. The characteristic symptoms of this disease include lethargy i.e. weakness to do any sort of work and hypothermia i.e. cold body temperature.

Additional information: Let us look at the other abnormalities mentioned in the options.
Cretinism: It is also known as congenital hypothyroidism and refers to a severe deficiency of the thyroid hormone in newly born babies. This disease results in retarded mental growth, stunted physical growth, and some physical deformities as well.
Hashimoto disease: Hashimoto’s disease is an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system of the body attacks the thyroid gland resulting in the breakdown of it. Such a diminished gland causes hypothyroidism as enough hormones cannot be made by it to fulfill the demands of the body.
Addison’s disease: It is also known as primary adrenal insufficiency or hypocortisolism as it is caused by the under-production of cortisol and aldosterone by the adrenal gland. Symptoms of this disease include fatigue, nausea, darkening of the skin, and dizziness.
So, the correct option is ‘(c) Myxoedema’.

Note:
- The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped organ located at the base of the neck.
- The thyroid produces the hormones known as triiodothyronine, tetraiodothyronine, and parathormone.
- Iodine is crucial for the proper function of the thyroid gland and its deficiency in diet causes goiter.