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………... is a form of reproduction that does not involve a male gamete.
(a) Fragmentation
(b) Spores
(c) Budding
(d) Agamogenesis

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Last updated date: 13th Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint: Parthenogenesis is a type of reproduction in which there is no involvement of male gamete. Only the female gamete takes part in the process and develops on its own to produce the offspring. Thus in such a case offspring produced is haploid as there was no involvement of fertilization with the male gamete.

Complete Answer:
Agamogenesis is the term used for the type of reproduction that does not involve a male gamete. Parthenogenesis is a type of agamogenesis. One of the most striking examples of parthenogenesis is the formation of the male honeybee. The queen honeybee produces a lot of eggs. The ones that are fertilized become female bees but the unfertilized ones develop into male worker bees known as drones. Parthenogenesis is also seen in turkey.

Additional information: Let us look at the other forms of reproduction mentioned in the options.
Fragmentation: Fragmentation is an asexual form of reproduction in which the body of the organism breaks into little fragments. Then each fragment grows into a fully developed organism again. Example: Planaria
Spores: Spores are also a type of asexual reproduction in which spores are released into the environment where they germinate once suitable conditions are provided. Example- Penicillium
Budding: Budding is a type of asexual reproduction in which small outgrowths known as bud develop which they separate from the body to become a fully grown organism. Example- Yeast, hydra
So, the correct option is ‘(d) Agamogenesis’.

Note:
- Parthenogenesis is seen in plants where the egg in the ovary develops on its own to form the fruit.
- Or in some cases, nucellar cells surrounding the embryo sac start dividing to form the fruit, such a case is known as polyembryony.
- Asexual reproduction is a fast way to increase the population but it does not help in evolution as all the offsprings are genetically identical copies to the parent.