Hint: From 1916 to 1985 different ecologists and evolutionary biologists introduced the term biodiversity on the basis of their discovery. Initially, it was called biological diversity but later it was introduced by contracting the term into biodiversity.
J. Arthur Harris first used the term biological diversity in 1916. In 1980 Thomas Lovejoy introduced biological diversity in a book to the scientific community. According to Edward Wilson, biodiversity the contracted term of biological diversity was first coined by W.G. Rosen in 1985 and the term biodiversity was first published in 1988 in an article.
So, the term biodiversity was coined by W.G. Rosen in the year 1985.
Biodiversity is defined as the occurrence of a variety of living organisms in the different habitats of earth. Different types of an organism are divided into different species based on their characteristic features. Biodiversity is divided into three levels: genetic diversity, species diversity, and ecological diversity.
Genetic diversity is based on a variety of genetic information in an organism. DNA is the main genetic material that represents the different traits and functions of the body. Each gene carries several alleles which represent the different expression of characters and enables a population to adapt to its environment and changes in the environment. The number of genes is less in lower organisms while it is more in higher organisms.
Species diversity is the variety of species found in the same or different habitat which share a common feature. The number of species in nature increases with the increase in the unit area. Species diversity depends on taxonomic diversity. Species diversity gets decreased by the abundance of different dominant species in the same habitat.
Ecological diversity represents diversity at ecosystem levels which represent the local, unique, and regional component of species diversity. It is divided into alpha, beta, and gamma diversity where alpha represents local diversity in which organism share same community in an area, beta represent unique habitat diversity which develops due to change in habitat along environmental gradients, and gamma represents regional diversity which describes the total richness of species in all habitat within a region.
Note: Biodiversity loss is caused due to habitat loss, fragmentation, overexploitation, pollution, disturbance, etc. In the IUCN red list, there are more than 120,000 species that are endangered which consist of 40% amphibians, 35% conifers, 30% corals, 25% mammals, and 15% birds.