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How does temperature affect the movement of atoms and molecules?

Last updated date: 17th Jun 2024
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Hint: The movement of the atoms and the molecules is related with the temperature. The effect can be determined by using the kinetic molecular theory where the kinetic energy is equal to $\dfrac{3}{2 }$ product of Boltzmann constant and temperature.

Complete step by step answer:
The effect of temperature on the movement of atoms and molecules are determined by the kinetic molecular theory. The kinetic molecular theory describes the behavior of the gases. It describes the properties of gases like pressure and temperature.
There are five assumptions in order to apply the kinetic model of gases.
(1) The gases are formed of particles which do not have definite volume but have defined mass.
(2) The gas particles do not have any intermolecular attraction or repulsion. This assumption shows that the particles do not have any potential energy and their total energy is equal to the kinetic energies.
(3) The gas particles are present in continuous random motion.
(4) The collision between the gas particles is elastic which means that no loss or gain of kinetic energy takes place when the gas molecule collides.
(5) The average kinetic energy for all gases is the same at a given temperature regardless of the identity of the gas. The kinetic energy is proportional to the absolute temperature of the gas.
It can be written as shown below.
$K.E = \dfrac{1}{2}m{v^2} = \dfrac{3}{2}{K_B}T$
K.E is the kinetic energy
m is the mass
V is the velocity
${K_B}$ is the Boltzmann constant
T is the absolute temperature in kelvin.
The above given relation says that the speed of the gas is related to the absolute temperature. As the temperature increases the speed of the atom also increases and the total energy increases as well.

Note: You must know that it is impossible to determine the speed of any one gas particle as the speed of the gases are defined in terms of their root-mean-square speed.