Hint: A topographic map represents a detailed and accurate graphic representation of cultural and natural (economic and physical) features of the earth surface or any part of the earth surface. Topographic maps show a universal transverse mercator (UTM) grid, which allows the user to determine accurate and precise positions anywhere on the earth surface.
Complete answer: Some topics related to topographical map is discussed below:
Eastings -- The eastings of a topographical map are the imaginary vertical lines on the surface of the earth that are used to locate places on the same. Each easting line is given a number and the number increases from the left hand side of the map to the right hand side of the map. The lines are called eastings as the numbers increase as one moves to the east of the map.
Northings -- The of a topographical map are the imaginary horizontal lines drawn on the surface of the earth that are used for locating places on the same. Each northing line is given a number and the number increases from the bottom of the map to the top of the map. The lines are called northings as the numbers increase as one moves from north of the map.
Grid -- A grid system is a regular pattern of lines intersecting each other at right angles forming squares or rectangles that would help to locate the place accurately. To locate a place precisely on the surface of the earth or on a sheet of map, topographic maps are divided into two kinds, viz., universal transverse mercator (UTM) projection (easting/northing) and geographic: degrees and minutes (longitude/latitude).
Arbitrary grid -- Arbitrary grid pattern in topographic map is a grid pattern that is drawn based on random data. It is generally drawn from field data and then analysis.
Grid square -- At the time of drawing imaginary grid patterns on the map, vertical and horizontal are drawn that intersect each other to create a grid. Each gris is termed as grid square.
Coordinates of the grid -- Coordinates are the numbers or the reference points that are assigned within the grid system. These coordinates help to determine the location, distance and direction in reference to the ground as well as on the map.
Note: Topographical maps are immensely used by man. They are helpful in a variety of ways, like geographic planning of a region, engineering purposes, for fishing, mining, and even for adventurous journeys and expeditions.