Soil is a material made up of a mixture of minerals, gases, liquids, organic matter, and organisms that support life. Soil is commonly referred to as dirt or earth. The Earth's body consists of a layer called the pedosphere. The word pedo refers to the soil.
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Black soil is also known as black cotton soil or the regur soil. Black cotton soil is known as ‘tropical chernozems’ in the other parts of the world. These soils are named as black cotton soil as it is famous for the purpose of cultivation of cotton. Black soil or black cotton soil are formed from the Deccan Trap rocks known as Zonal Soils. Black cotton soil is mostly found in the Deccan trap region. Most states of India which includes Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and some parts of Tamil Nadu are covered by the black soil. Black cotton soil is clayey in nature and is widely used for the purpose of agriculture. It has high water retention capacity as it is deep and impermeable in nature. The black color of the black soil is due to the presence of aluminum compounds, iron, and humus. Crops such as cotton, pulses, millets, linseed, tobacco, sugarcane, vegetables and citrus fruits are cultivated in the black soil for high productivity.
So, option A is the correct option.
The nature of alluvial soil varies from sandy loam to clay. The color of alluvial soil is different in particular locations depending upon the climate and varies from light grey to ash grey. The Laterite soils are reddish brown in color due to the presence of iron oxide. Laterite soil becomes soft when wetted and gets hard by drying.