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What are the adaptations of leaves for photosynthesis?
a. Leaves provide a large surface area for maximum light absorption
b. Leaves are arranged at right angles to the light sources in a way that causes overlapping
c. The extensive network of veins enables quick transport of substances to and from the mesophyll cells
d. Presence of numerous stomata for gaseous exchange
e. All of the above

Last updated date: 23rd Jun 2024
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Hint: Leaf is an organ in the plants which has so many tissue parts such as the epidermis on the upper and lower side and palisade and spongy mesophyll which are organized in such a manner and useful in photosynthesis.

Complete answer:
Some of the leaf tissue parts are:
> Upper epidermis: This is the tissue part of the leaf where it produces the wax, and form the cuticle, which is not made up of cells, and it acts a waterproof and at the same time it prevents excessive evaporation, and in this layer, the chloroplast is absent, no photosynthesis occurs in this layer.

> Palisade mesophyll: It is the tissue, where the cytoplasm contains the chloroplast, and arranged tightly packed and box-shaped, it is the tissue part where 80% of the photosynthesis happens.

> Spongy mesophyll: This tissue part is loosely arranged and forms large air spaces, and this tissue helps in the diffusion of carbon dioxide, it contains very microscopic cells such as stomata. Photosynthesis takes place in this tissue also.

> Lower epidermis: This is the dullest tissue among all, it contains some specialized cells called guard cells that surround the stoma and control the process called transpiration.

Adaptation of leaf for photosynthesis
- The surface area of the leaf is maximized, so that maximum absorption of sunlight takes place
- The thin structure of the leaf helps to reduce the distance so that carbon dioxide easily diffuses and is helpful in such a way that sunlight reaches up to the middle of the leaf.
- Air spaces increase the surface area of the gas exchange inside the cell.
- Stomata are the cells which help in the gas diffusion and water exchange.
- Presence of veins, where it contains xylem and phloem which helps for the transfer of water, minerals, etc.
- The chloroplast is the organelle that is present in mesophyll and guard cells, where it contains chlorophyll pigment and is helpful for photosynthesis.

Hence, The correct answer is option (E).

Note: In spite of internal structures adaptation, the stems and leaves are arranged in such a way, where maximum sunlight is exposed, and it requires the water transport system and respiratory system if they are terrestrial plants, so whole plant adaptation is important, apart from leaf adaptation for photosynthesis.