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An example of ex situ conservation is
(a) Sacred grove
(b) National Park
(c) Seed bank
(d) Wildlife sanctuary

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Last updated date: 20th Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint: The method of conservation of all levels of biological diversity outside their natural environments by diverse methods is ex-situ conservation. The rate at which humans regulate or adjust the natural patterns of the controlled population varies greatly, and these can include improvements in living conditions and protection from predation and mortality.

Complete answer: Ex situ conservation is the conservation of areas outside their natural habitat. Botanical gardens, zoological parks, seed banks, cryopreservation, field gene banks, etc. are examples of it. Both native and domesticated animals are well protected and collected in botanic gardens, zoological parks, wildlife safari parks, arboretums, etc. Most of these have catch breeding programs designed to restore the decreasing number of animals and to help the survival of the species. Gene banks are institutions that stock viable seeds (seed banks), live plants (orchards), tissue culture and frozen germplasm with all genetic viability. There are two types of biodiversity conservation; Ex Situ conservation and In Situ conservation. In situ conservation is the conservation of living resources by maintaining them in their natural ecosystem in which they occur. Examples; national parks, sanctuaries, natural reserves, reserves of the biosphere, sacred grooves, etc.
So, the option C is the correct answer.

Note: Ex-situ management may occur within or outside the normal geographic range of a species. Ex-situ-preserved individuals exist outside an ecological niche. This implies that they are not under the same selection pressures as wild populations. They may experience artificial selection. In ex-situ collections, agricultural biodiversity is also retained.