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Election Commission of India

Last updated date: 17th Apr 2024
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Election Commission - Overview

The Election Commission of India (ECI) is a permanent and independent organisation created directly by India's Constitution to ensure free and fair elections. The electoral commission is endowed with the authority of superintendence, direction, and control over elections to parliament, state legislatures, the president of India, and the vice-president of India. As a result, the Election Commission is an all-India body in the sense that it represents both the central and state governments. Elections to the Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, State Legislative Assemblies, State Legislative Councils, and the President and Vice President of the country are conducted by this organisation. 

The Election Commission is governed by Article 324 of the Constitution, and the Representation of the People Act was adopted afterwards. Under the Constitution, the commission has the authority to act appropriately when existing laws are insufficient to cope with a particular situation in the conduct of an election. The Election Commission, like the country's higher courts, the Union Public Service Commission, and the Comptroller and Auditor General of India, is a constitutional entity that functions with both autonomy and independence. It is a constitutional body that will occur permanently. 

Structure of ECI

The commission was founded in 1950, with only a Chief Election Commissioner at the time. On the eve of the 1989 General Election, two more Commissioners were appointed to the commission for the first time on October 16, 1989 (on the night of the 1989 General Election), although their term was brief, expiring on January 1, 1990. The "Election Commissioner Amendment Act, 1989" was passed on January 1, 1990, making the commission a multi-member body. Since then, a three-member committee has been in existence, with decisions decided by a majority vote.


According to the Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners (Conditions of Service) Rules, 1992, the Chief Election Commissioner and two Election Commissioners, who have usually retired IAS officers, receive salaries and allowances on par with those of Judges of the Supreme Court of India.

The commission's secretariat is situated in New Delhi. Deputy Election Commissioners, who are usually IAS personnel, assist the Election Commissioners. Directors General, Principal Secretaries, Secretaries and Under Secretaries also assist them.

Related Articles

Article 324

Superintendence, direction and control of elections to be vested in an Election Commission

Article 325

No person to be ineligible for inclusion in, or to claim to be included in a special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste or sex.

Article 326

Elections to the House of the People and to the Legislative Assemblies of States to be on the basis of adult suffrage.

Article 327

Power of Parliament to make provision with respect to elections to Legislatures.

Article 328

Power of Legislature of a State to make provision with respect to elections to such Legislature.

Article 329

Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters.

Appointment, Removal and Other Important Provisions

The important provisions related to the Election Commission of India are given below:

  • Presently, ECI is said to be a multi member body and consists of one Chief Election Commissioner and two other Election Commissioners. 

  • The Chief Election Commissioner as well as two other Election Commissioners are appointed by the President of India.

  • The tenure is said to be fixed which is 6 years or up to the age of 65 years whichever is earlier.

  • Their status, salary as well as perks are said to be similar to the judges of the Supreme Court.

  • If we talk about the removal, they can only be removed by the President after a resolution passed by the parliament through a procedure similar to the removal of the judge of the supreme court.

Main Functions of the Election Commission

The following are the main functions of the Election Commission:

  • Constituency delimitation.

  • Electoral Rolls Preparation

  • Each General Election, the electoral registers are reviewed.

  • Make sure that all of the necessary arrangements are in place for elections to be held on schedule.

  • Publication of the election timetable, as well as the receipt and scrutiny of nominations.

  • Conduct all parliamentary and state elections.

State Election Commission

The State Election Commission is an identity constitutional body that oversees elections for the third tier of government, which comprises Panchayati Raj Institutions and Urban Local Bodies. Elections to these bodies were held by the various state governments before 1992. The 73rd and 74th amendments to the Constitution were enacted in 1992 to grant legal legitimacy to Local Self-Governments (LSGs), allowing them to take their due position in the nation-building process. Articles 243 K and 243 ZA were incorporated in the Constitution to create a State Election Commission in each state as a constitutional body with jurisdiction over "the preparation of electoral rolls for all elections to Panchayats and Municipalities in the State, as well as the conduct of such elections."

List of Chief Election Commissioners in India

The following are the lists of India's chief election commissioners:


Date of Joining

Date of Leaving Office

Sukumar Sen

21 March 1950

19 December 1958

KVK Sundaram

20 December 1958

30 December 1967

S.P. Sen Varma

01 October 1967

30 September 1972

Dr Nagendra Singh

01 October 1972

6 February 1973

T Swaminathan

07 February 1973

17 June 1977

S.L. Shakdher

18 June 1977

17 June 1982

R.K. Trivedi

18 June 1982

31 December 1985

R.V.S. Peri Sastri

01 January 1986

25 November 1990

Smt V.S. Rama Devi

26 November 1990

11 December 1990

T.N. Sheshan

12 December 1990

11 December 1996

M.S. Gill

12 December 1996

13 June 2001

J.M. Lyngdoh

14 June 2001

7 February 2004

T.S. Krishna Murthy

08 February 2004

15 May 2005

B.B. Tandon

16 May 2005

29 June 2006

N Gopalaswamy

30 June 2006

20 April 2009

Navin Chawla

21 April 2009

29 July 2010

S.Y. Qureshi

30 July 2010

10 June 2012

V.S. Sampath

11 June 2012

15 January 2015

H.S. Brahma

16 January 2015

18 April 2015

Dr Nasim Zaidi

19 April 2015

05 July 2017

Shri AK Joti

06 July 2017

22 January 2018

Shri Om Prakash Rawat

23 January 2018

01 December 2018

Shri Sunil Arora

02 December 2019


Election Laws in India

The Representation of the People Act, 1950, and the Representation of the People Act, 1951 are India's two major election laws. The Representation of the People Act, 1950 is concerned with the preparation and revision of electoral rolls, whilst the Representation of the People Act, 1951 is concerned with the smooth running of elections and the resolution of disputes. It is crucial to remember that the Election Commission has residuary powers to act appropriately in the conduct of elections whenever any legislation is silent or inadequately covers a topic.

Right to Vote

All Indian citizens have the right to vote by registering as voters in their respective constituencies, provided they are 18 years old on the first day of the year for which an electoral roll is created. Individuals who have been disqualified from voting by a court for çcorrupt activities or any other election-related violation are not allowed to vote. Similarly, those who are mentally ill are not allowed to vote. After completing the election process the candidate received the voter certificate from the National Voter Services Portal. 

What are the Documents for Voter ID Enrollment?

  • One passport-sized photograph.

  • Identity proof- this could be a birth certificate.

  • Passport xerox copy.

  • Driving licence xerox copy.

  • PAN Card xerox copy or high school mark sheet. 

  • Address proof- a utility bill (phone or electricity).

How to Check Voter ID Cards Online?

The official website is the most common way to check voter ID information. Check out the method outlined below for step-by-step instruction.

  1. Visit the Electoral Search page for further information. After 2 or 3 weeks after applying for a voter ID card, this website keeps all voter information.

  2. There are two ways to find out your information on the website's homepage. The first option is to input your Epic Number, while the second is to search using your details.

  3. If you select the first option, you'll be prompted to input your Epic Number, State, and the Security Code displayed on the screen before pressing the "search" button. Your information will be displayed on the screen if you are a registered voter.

  4. You may also use the “Search by details” option to find your Voter Identity Card data by entering information such as your complete name, age, date of birth, states, district, and constituency and clicking “Search.” Your information will be displayed on the screen if you are a registered voter.

What is NVSP and How Does it Work?

The NVSP stands for the National Voter Services Portal. The portal was created to give electors a single interface for service. A user can use NVSP to obtain and access a variety of services, including accessing the electoral list, applying for a voter id card, applying online for corrections to a voter's card, viewing details of polling booths, Assembly Constituencies, and Parliamentary Constituencies, and obtaining the contact information for Booth Level Officers and Electoral Registration Officers, among other services. There are different NVSP helpline numbers for different states. This site is very helpful for any Indian citizen and also it is very easy to use.


Therefore, we can say that the Election Commission of India was established in the year of 1950. It is an all-India body that represents both the central and state governments. Elections to the Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, State Legislative Assemblies and State Legislative Councils are conducted by this organisation. The State Election Commission oversees elections for the third tier of government. Elections to these bodies were held by the various state governments before 1992. The 73rd and 74th amendments to the Constitution were enacted in 1992 to grant legal legitimacy to Local Self-Governments (LSGs).

FAQs on Election Commission of India

1. What are the electoral commission's main duties?

The election commission has the right to authorise political parties to use symbols. National parties, state parties, and regional parties are all recognised. It restricts the amount of money that may be spent on polling. The commission is in charge of preparing electoral rolls and updating the voter's list regularly.

2. What is called the election commission?

An election commission is an organisation in charge of overseeing the implementation of a country's election process.

3. How to check NVSP voter id verification status?

You can check the NVSP ID verification status through the online website of NVSP by using your reference ID.