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Rocks and Minerals for Science Kids

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Last updated date: 13th Jul 2024
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Rock Facts for Kids

Rocks and minerals are all around us! They help us develop new technologies used in our daily life. Our uses of rocks and minerals include building materials, cosmetics, cars, roads and equipment. 


Which rocks do we use in everyday life? Granite, Salt, Quartz, Marble Granite and marble countertops are made from different stones. Granite is formed when magma cools inside the Earth and never erupts from a volcano. The slower it cools, the larger the mineral grain is formed.  Marble is formed from limestone that has been cooked by heat and pressure within the earth.


Some rocks are the source of minerals like gold, diamond, limestone and petroleum etc., which can be exported to different countries. Whereas gold, diamond and tin are obtained from igneous and metamorphic rocks. There are different types of rocks. Rocks are hard like granite, soft like clay or scattered like gravel. Rocks come in different colours, weights and hardnesses. 


Formation of Rocks

Rocks and minerals were formed at the time of the formation of the earth. That is why these two elements are found in mixed form. The topmost part of the lithosphere is called the crust.  It is the most important part of the earth;  humans live on its upper surface. The materials from which the earth's crust is made are called rocks.


Most rocks contain one or more minerals. For example, there are many minerals found in granite rocks. Such as rhinestones, feldspar, mica, etc. Whereas only one mineral calcite is found in marble. Thus rocks may contain one or more minerals. Apart from this, the largest part of rocks is a mixture of minerals. 


Types of Rocks for Kids 

There are three types of rocks:-

  • Igneous Rocks

  • Sedimentary Rocks

  • Metamorphic Rocks


Different Types of Rocks.


Different Types of Rocks.

Igneous Rocks 

  • Igneous rocks were the first to form after the origin of the earth. That's why they are called primary rocks.

  • These rocks are formed by the cooling of magma and lava.

  • The absence of layers is found in igneous rocks.

  • These rocks are found more in volcanic areas.

  • Metallic minerals are found in abundance in igneous rocks.

  • The absence of fossils is found in igneous rocks.

  • Granite, Basalt, Grabo, Diorite, Pegmatites, Syenite.


Sedimentary Rocks 

Flaky sedimentary rocks are formed by the deposition of substances obtained from the rocky erosion action of rivers, wind, and sea waves. Fossils are found in these rocks. The expansion of sedimentary rocks is found on about 75% of the entire Earth's surface.


While the contribution of sedimentary rocks to the texture of the land surface is only 5%. Mineral oil is found in sedimentary rocks. eg. LimeStone, Coal, Sandstone, Clay. In sedimentary rocks, clay accounts for the most part.


Sandstone.


Sandstone.


Metamorphic Rocks 

Metamorphic rocks are formed due to change or transformation due to heat and pressure in sedimentary and igneous rocks.


Facts About Rocks

  • Rocks are the hard parts of the earth's surface which are the fundamental units of the structure of the outer layer of the earth.

  • Mountains and plateaus are formed from rocks.

  • The crust of the Earth's upper layer is formed from rocks.

  • The science that studies rocks is called Petrology.

  • Rocks are solid materials found in the earth's crust which are groups of minerals.

  • Feldspar is most commonly found among the rock-forming minerals found in the Earth's crust.

  • So far, a total of 118 elements have been found on the earth; of these, 8 elements make up 98% of the crust.


Interesting Facts About Rocks

Let us read some fun facts about Rocks (fun rocks)

  • Basalt has the highest amount of iron. Black soil is formed by the erosion of this rock.

  • Granite is an acidic igneous rock, it has a high silica content.

  • Basalt, grey-brown and rhyolite are alkaline igneous rocks.  erri-magnesium predominates in them. Their colour is darker.

  • Coal is found in the sedimentary rocks of the Damodar Mahanadi and Godavari river basins.


Solved Questions

  1. What are metamorphic rocks?

Ans: Metamorphic rocks are formed due to change or transformation due to heat and pressure in sedimentary and igneous rocks.


  1. Which rocks were the first to form after the origin of the Earth?

Ans: Igneous rocks were the first to form after the origin of the Earth.


  1. Name some sedimentary rocks.

Ans: Limestone, Coal, Sandstone, Clay are sedimentary rocks.


Summary

We have seen Rock Information and information about minerals also in this article. Rocks and minerals were formed at the time of the formation of the earth. Rocks are solid materials found in the earth's crust which are groups of minerals. Igneous rocks were the first to form after the origin of the earth. Flaky sedimentary rocks are formed by the deposition of substances obtained from the rocky erosion action of rivers, wind, and sea waves.

FAQs on Rocks and Minerals for Science Kids

1. How is soil formed from rocks?

Soil is formed by the following process:

  • In the beginning. Earth was full of big rocks. These rocks got heated by the heat of the Sun. 

  • Rocks got cooled by the rains. Strong winds blew over them too.

  • With continuous heating and cooling, big rocks broke into smaller pieces. 

  • These small rocks are further broken down to form soil. Simple plants started growing in the soil. A few small animals also started living in the soil.

This process of soil formation is very slow. It takes many, many years to form a small amount of soil.

2. Name the hardest rock.

Diamond is the hardest rock.

This image shows Diamond.


Diamond.


3. Which rock is used as fuel?

Coal is used as fuel.