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Write the main difference between acid and a base. With the help of suitable examples, explain the terms neutralization and the formation of
i.Acidic
ii.Basic
iii.Neutral salts

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Last updated date: 28th Feb 2024
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IVSAT 2024
Answer
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Hint:Bases can be thought of as a chemical opposite of acids. An acid is a substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution when dissolved in water. These ${H^ + }$ ions form the hydronium ion $\,{H_3}{O^ + }$ when they combine with water molecules.

Complete step by step answer:

BasisAcidBase
Arrhenius conceptAn acid is a substance that produces ${H^ + }$ ions as the only positive ions when mixed with water.A base is a substance that produces hydroxyl $O{H^ - }$ Ions as the only negative ions when mixed with water.
Bronsted-Lowry conceptAn acid releases a proton for another species.A base can accept a proton.
Lewis conceptAn acid can accept an electron pair.A base can donate an electron pair.
StrengthBased on the concentration of hydrogen ions.Based on the concentration of hydroxyl ions.
pH valueLess than SevenGreater than seven
Litmus testTurn blue litmus redTurn red litmus blue
Reaction with metalReact with metals to release hydrogen gasDo not react with metals


A neutralization reaction is when an acid and a base react to form water and salt and it involves a combination of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions to generate water. The neutralization of a strong acid and a strong base has a pH equal to $7$.
i.Acidic salts form from the neutralization of a strong acid and a weak base.
Example: $N{H_3} + HCl \to N{H_4}Cl$
Here $N{H_3}$ is a weak base and $HCl$ is a strong acid thus forming an acidic salt ammonium chloride.
ii.Basic salts form from the neutralization of a strong base and a weak acid.
Example: $NaOH + C{H_3}COOH \to C{H_3}COONa + {H_2}O$
Here $NaOH$ is a strong base and acetic acid is a weak acid thus forming a basic salt
iii.Neutralization of a strong acid and a strong base gives a neutral salt.
Example: $NaOH + HCl \to NaCl + {H_2}O$

Note:
-When a strong acid completely neutralizes a strong base, the pH of a solution is equal to $7$ .
-When a strong base completely neutralizes a weak acid, pH of a solution is greater than $7$.
-When a strong acid completely neutralizes a weak base, pH of a solution is less than $7$.
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