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Which one is wrongly matched?
(A) Gemma cups – Marchantia
(B) Uni Flagellated gametes – Polysiphonia
(C) Unicellular organism – Chlorella
(D) Biflagellate zoospores – Brown algae

Last updated date: 20th Jun 2024
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Hint:Plants are categorised into many groups, namely, algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms. They have the ability to reproduce both sexually and asexually. Asexually, they reproduce by the production of spores, and sexually, they reproduce by the production of different male and female gametes.

Complete answer:
Kingdom Plantae involves algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms. Algae are chlorophyll bearing, autotrophic organisms. Furthermore, algae can be classified into many types like red algae, green algae and brown algae. Red algae, members of class Rhodophyceae have pre-dominant red pigment. They reproduce vegetatively by fragmentation, asexually by non-motile spores and sexually by non-motile gametes. Example – Polysiphonia and Porphyra.

Brown algae, members of class Phaeophyceae show great variation in size and structure. They reproduce vegetatively by fragmentation, asexually by biflagellate zoospores and sexually by pear-shaped gametes. Example – Ectocarpus, Fucus. Laminaria, etc. Green algae, members of class Chlorophyceae are unicellular organisms, found abundantly in freshwater. Examples – Volvox, Chlorella, and Chara.
Bryophytes include mosses and liverworts. Their plant body is thalloid in nature. They reproduce asexually by fragmentation or by specialised structures called gemmae or gemma cups. Example – Marchantia.

Understanding the options one by one,
(A) Gemma cups – Marchantia : Marchantia, a liverwort belonging to bryophytes reproduces asexually by specialised structures called gemmae. Gemmae are multicellular buds developed on the gemma cups. Thus, they are correctly matched.
(B) Uni Flagellated gametes – Polysiphonia : Polysiphonia is a red algae which reproduces sexually by the production of non-motile gametes. Their gametes don't possess flagella. They are wrongly matched and hence, this is the correct answer.
(C) Unicellular organism – Chlorella : Chlorella are green algae which are unicellular, autotrophic organisms. Thus, they are correctly matched.
(D) Biflagellate zoospores – Brown algae : Brown algae belongs to the class Phaeophyceae. They reproduce asexually by the production of biflagellate zoospores. Thus, they are correctly matched.

Therefore, the correct answer is option (B).

Note:It is important to remember the different types of plant, their characteristic features and examples. Majority of the lower plants (algae) reproduce vegetatively, asexually and sexually. It is essential to understand the varied types of spores, gametes (motile and non-motile) produced by the lower plants.