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Last updated date: 02nd Dec 2023
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MVSAT Dec 2023

Which minerals are needed for the synthesis of hormone thyroxine?

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Hint: Minerals are elements found on the earth and in foods that our bodies need in order to grow and function normally. Calcium, phosphorus, potassium, fluoride, molybdenum, manganese, sodium, chloride, magnesium, iron, zinc, iodine, chromium, copper, and selenium are all essential for good health.

Complete answer:
The thyroid, also known as the thyroid gland, is an endocrine gland in the neck that consists of two paired lobes. A thin band of tissue called the thyroid isthmus connects the lower two-thirds of the lobes. The thyroid gland is situated in the front of the neck, just below Adam's apple.
Iodine is a critical micronutrient for thyroid hormone production, and it can only be obtained by diet. Iodide (I) is consumed in the stomach and small intestine until being concentrated from the bloodstream through the thyroid follicular cell by the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS).
The thyroid gland's purpose is to absorb iodine, which is present in many foods, into thyroid hormones: thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) (T3). The only cells in the body that can consume iodine are thyroid cells. These cells synthesise T3 and T4 by combining iodine and the amino acid tyrosine.
Iodide has been shown to regulate thyroid function. Its primary effects are to reduce the thyroid's reaction to thyrotropin (TSH); to acutely inhibit its own oxidation; to reduce its trapping after a delay; and, at high concentrations, to inhibit thyroid hormone secretion

As TSH levels in the blood increase, the thyroid gland uses iodine to produce thyroid hormones. However, when the body is deficient in iodine, it is unable to produce enough of them. To compensate, the thyroid gland works harder to produce more thyroid hormone. This causes the cells to multiply and expand, eventually resulting in a goitre.