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What is spore formation?

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Last updated date: 01st Mar 2024
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IVSAT 2024
Answer
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Hint: Spore formation is an asexual mode of reproduction. This process requires spores, a reproductive cell that is capable of becoming a new plant without undergoing any kind of fusion with any other cell. Gametes thus can be differentiated from these spores which definitely requires fuse with another gamete for reproduction.

Complete answer:
Spore formation is a form of reproduction in which the reproductive bodies called the spores are present in a sac called the sporangia. Once these spores mature the sporangia burst and these matured spores reach different areas by air, wind and water. Under suitable conditions, these spores germinate to form a new plant.

The spores are single-celled minute structures which may be motile in some case whereas non-motile otherwise. These can be of various types like-
i) Zoospore- these spores show movement due to the presence of flagella however they lack a true cell wall in them. Some of its examples are- Chlamydomonas an algae and Albugo fungi.
ii) Aplanospore- these spores do not show motility and are formed from a part of a vegetative cell. Lower fungi and algae like haematococcus and vaucheria are some examples.

These Aplanospores are further divided into two types-
i) Conidia- these are formed at the tip of the body. Many conidiophores form conidia. For example penicillium.
ii) Oidia- these are also formed at the tip of the body but in the presence of excess food material. For example- Agaricus.

Note:
- One difference between Conidia and oidia is that the former is formed during unfavourable conditions whereas the latter is formed during favourable conditions.
- In such kinds of organisms, the majority of the sporangia produces haploid spores. They do not require any other organism for their reproduction process and in a way are self-sufficient.
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