What is Commercial Farming ? What are its types ? Explain them with Examples
Commercial agriculture, or otherwise known as agribusiness, is a cropping method in which crops are raised and livestock are raised in order to sell the products on the market in order to make money.
In this type of agriculture, a lot of capital is invested and large-scale crops are grown in huge farms, using modern technologies, machinery, irrigation methods and chemical fertilizers. The basic characteristic of commercial agriculture is that high doses of modern inputs are used for higher productivity, such as high yielding varieties, fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, weed killers, and so on.
In commercial agriculture, crops that are in high demand, i.e. crops that need to be exported to other countries or are used as raw materials in industries are produced mainly. In addition, the extent of agricultural marketing differs from region to region.
Key Differences between Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture
The difference between subsistence agriculture and commercial agriculture can be developed on the basis of the following premises:
1. Subsistence agriculture is an agricultural system that aims to grow as many crops that meet all or almost all the needs of the farmer and his family, with little or no surplus products to market. Commercial farming is the farming method in which plant and livestock production is practiced with the intention of selling the products on the market.
2. Because of the high labour required in subsistence agriculture, it is a labour-intensive technique. On the contrary, in commercial agriculture, huge capital investments are needed, which is why it is a capitalistic technique.
3. Subsistence agriculture is practiced in a small area only. On the other hand, a large area is necessary to practice commercial agriculture.
4. To increase productivity, manure is added to the soil in subsistence agriculture. On the other hand, in commercial agriculture, crop yields can be increased by high doses of modern inputs, ie seeds of high yielding varieties, fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, etc. .
5. In subsistence agriculture, mainly food grains such as wheat and rice, fruits and vegetables are grown. Conversely, in commercial agriculture, cash crops and cereals are mainly grown.
6. While subsistence agriculture is highly dependent on the monsoon and simple irrigation methods, commercial agriculture relies on modern irrigation methods such as surface irrigation, drip irrigation, watering, etc.
7. In subsistence agriculture, traditional methods of cultivation are used, while the machines are used for the purpose of cultivating the land, in commercial agriculture.