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Water is used as a coolant because of its _____________.
(A) it has lower density
(B) it has low specific heat
(C) it has high specific heat
(D) it is easily available

Last updated date: 16th Jul 2024
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Hint: At normal temperatures, the compound of water is a liquid that has no particular odour or taste that possesses the essential capacity to dissolve a number of other compounds. A coolant is a fluid compound that is used in a device for cooling it or transferring heat from one component of that device to another.

Complete answer:
A coolant is a liquid or gas form of a substance which can be utilized to minimize or maintain the temperature of a particular device, usually vehicle radiators.
For any ideal coolant the thermal potential or capacity must be sufficiently high, viscosity must be low, it should cost less, the coolant must be non-toxic, chemically inert, and does not induce or support the cooling system's corrosion. In certain applications, the coolant must also be an electrical insulator.
The most popular coolant that is used is water. It is a good heat-transfer medium due to its high toleration to heat and low cost. Water is known to have a high heat capacity making it the perfect fit for a coolant. It is typically combined with other substances such as corrosion inhibitors and antifreeze.
Take each option into consideration:
Option (A) ‘it has lower density’ is an incorrect option. This is because a coolant is mainly required to reduce temperature of a system and it has no association to density of the substance. So the coolant can be of any density and the density of the coolant has no particular role in serving the purpose of a coolant. So this option may be rejected.
Option (B) ‘it has low specific heat’ is an incorrect option. This is because the coolant’s main purpose is to regulate the heat or high temperature from one place to another so if the coolant has low specific heat it means that its heat toleration level is low and it cannot perform the function of a coolant. So this option may be rejected.
Option (C) ‘it has high specific heat’ is the correct option. Water is known to have a higher specific heat capacity this makes it an ideal coolant. This is because coolant is used to regulate heat in a device and in order to regulate heat, the coolant must be able to tolerate high levels of heat, so this is done by water due to its high specific heat.
Option (D) ‘it is easily available’ is an incorrect option. A coolant must be able to regulate the temperature levels in a radiator and being easily available is not the most important concern for a coolant. So this option can be rejected as there are more important characteristics that must be satisfied by a coolant.
Therefore the correct answer is clearly option (C) ‘it has high specific heat’.

We can note that engines that have internal combustion are generally cooled by injecting an antifreeze-like solvent simply called the engine coolant. A standard car radiator's coolant is a combination of water as well as antifreeze. Coolant absorbs excess heat from the car's engine component and transports it through the various pathways and carries it to the radiator, so that it is ejected into the atmosphere.